Inclusive Development

Duke CGGC is conducting research to understand why certain economic actors are not able to participate in global value chains. Research questions addressed include: How can developing countries gainfully engage in GVCs? What are the main constraints that small- and medium-sized firms in emerging nations face to participate in GVCs? What types of policies are successful in linking new economic actors to the global economy and what opportunities do these economic actors have to participate in value chains?

Chlorhexidine for Umbilical Cord Care: A Value Chain Analysis in Bangladesh

imageIn many regions of the world, including South Central Asia, infection is a leading cause of neonatal mortality. 7.1% chlorhexidine digluconate (gel or solution) is a lifesaving commodity which, when properly applied to newborn umbilical cords, can significantly reduce neonatal mortality. Chlorhexidine (CHX) for umbilical cord care was introduced in Bangladesh after a decade of clinical trials and implementation studies. This report applies a value chain analysis to the CHX launch in Bangladesh to identify critical opportunities to create greater synergies, reduce supply interruption risks and increase the adoption of CHX in the medium or long term.
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Pro-Poor Development and Power Asymmetries in Global Value Chains

imageThis report presents the asymmetric power relations in global value chains. It examines the limits of private governance and its development implications for local firms and producers in developing countries by drawing on the cases of apparel, cocoa-chocolate, and sugar-‘soft drink’ global value chains.
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Targeting Inclusive Development: A Value Chain Approach to Sewer Infrastructure Investment

imageThis report by Duke CGGC was sponsored by the Surdna Foundation to investigate how six local governments within the United States (Cleveland, OH; Louisville, KY; Omaha, NE; Philadelphia, PA; San Francisco, CA; Seattle, WA) investing in water infrastructure have successfully incorporated targeted businesses in capital improvements, while also identifying which segments of the value chain have the highest levels of opportunity for these businesses.
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Public-Private Partnerships in Global Value Chains: Can They Actually Benefit the Poor?

imageClient: United States Agency for International Development (USAID)

Challenge: The past 15 years has seen a proliferation of PPPs between the private sector and the international development community, yet little is known about their impact on developing countries.

Approach & Outcome: The Duke CGGC research report examined the main concerns over the potential of PPPs to bring about inclusive development: alignment of business and pro-poor development interests; actors and institutions that determine how the system works; and achievable outcomes. The report was based on secondary sources, including partner progress reports, post-project evaluation reports, studies from other development agencies and the global value chain (GVC) literature to analyze partnership outcomes. It also included several phone interviews with development experts.
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The Tobacco Global Value Chain in Low Income Countries

This report uses global value chains (GVC) analysis to understand how the changing dynamics of the global tobacco industry are affecting producers in low-income countries that are heavily reliant on the tobacco industry. Increased global adoption of tobacco control measures has raised concerns about whether decreases in demand as a result of tobacco control policies negatively impact small producers and increase poverty. These concerns have led to support for crop substitution strategies, although successful implementation has varied. This report offers new perspectives and avenues for investigating the viability of economic development pathways out of tobacco that are remunerative and sustainable for smallholders.
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Capturing the Gains in Africa, Making the Most of Global Value Chain Participation

imageThis report was commissioned as a background paper for the annual OECD publication, “Africa Economic Outlook (AEO)” 2014. It provides a critical overview of the Capturing the Gains (CTG) research findings from Africa across three industries: horticulture, apparel and tourism. Specific emphasis is placed on identifying opportunities and challenges for economic and social upgrading within African GVCs so that workers and small producers can capture a fairer share of the gains from trade and economic growth. The report also offers sector specific GVC policy recommendations for African policy makers.
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Realizing the Potential of African Agriculture: Innovations and Market Access for Smallholders Farmers

imageAgriculture increasingly occurs in a context where private entrepreneurs coordinate extensive value chains linking producers to consumers, sometimes across multiple countries. These dynamics drive agricultural development and innovation far more than before across sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). More providers of knowledge are on the scene, particularly from the private sector and civil society, and they interact in new ways to generate ideas or develop responses to dynamics in agro-food value chains. A growing number of entrepreneurial smallholders are organizing to enter these value chains, but others struggle with the economic marginalization as innovative solutions do not reach them due to missing links in the value chains.
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Inclusion of Small- and Medium-Sized Producers in High-Value Agro-Food Value Chains

imageThis paper uses the global value chain methodology to analyze Inter-American Development Bank Multilateral Investment Fund (IDB-MIF) initiatives in Latin America that aim to include high-value agriculture small producers in the national, regional and global chains. Based on extensive primary and secondary research, we propose a holistic model for these interventions.
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Assessment of Five High-Value Agriculture Inclusive Business Projects

imageThis paper is a summary of five IDB-MIF projects on high-value agriculture value chains that aimed to include small- and medium-sized producers in high-value agriculture value chains. The objective of this paper is to provide a set of lessons learned to design and implement efficient, effective and sustainable projects in the future.
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Basic Principles and Guidelines for Impactful and Sustainable Inclusive Business Interventions in High-Value Agro-Food Value Chains

imageClient: Inter-American Development Bank-Multilateral Investment Fund (IDB-MIF)

Challenge: IDB-MIF wanted to capture the lessons from its experience in inclusive business and value chain development interventions in high-value agricultural markets. They sought to improve these interventions based on good practices and facilitate systematic institutionalization of this knowledge.

Approach & Outcome: Duke CGGC’s report summarized key lessons of IDB-MIF's projects in seven countries throughout Latin America. The team proposed a model to overcome constraints and provided a step-by-step guide to deploy it in high-value agriculture markets. The report was based on extensive primary and secondary research of IDB-MIF projects, interventions by development agencies and literature on SME inclusion in value chains. Over 50 interviews were conducted with country specialists, implementing agencies, industry experts, associations and producers.
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The Competitiveness of Small Organic Cocoa Producers of the National Confederation of Dominican Cocoa Producers (CONACADO)

imageSmall organic cocoa producers in the Dominican Republic improve their competitiveness by increasing cultivation productivity. This case study is also available in Spanish (Competitividad de Pequeños Productores de Cacao Orgánico de la Confederación Nacional de Cacaocultores Dominicanos).
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Case: Supporting the Competitiveness of Central American Coffee

imageAfter the coffee crisis at the turn of the century, a selected group of small and medium coffee producers in five Central American countries received technical assistance to produce higher value specialty coffee and help to establish market linkages with global buyers. This topic is explored in this case study for IDB-MIF. It is also available in Spanish (Apoyando la Competitividad del Café Centroamericano).
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Case: Development of Micro and Small Rural Apicultural Producers in Nicaragua & Honduras

imageMicro- and small honey producers were helped to enter into the domestic (Honduras) and global (Nicaragua) value chains.

Caso: Desarrollo de Micro y Pequeños Productores Apícolas en Nicaragua y Honduras

Micro y pequeños productores de miel fueron apoyados para insertarse en la cadena local de la miel (Honduras) y en la cadena global de la miel (Nicaragua).
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Case: Conversion to Organic Cacao Cultivation in Peru

imageSmall producers, members of a large, established coffee and cocoa cooperative in Tingo María, Perú, converted to certified organic production of cocoa.

Caso: Conversión hacia un Cultivo Orgánico de Cacao en Perú

Pequeños productores de cacao y café, miembros de la Cooperativa Industrial Naranjillo (COOPAIN), una cooperativa grande y consolidada en Tingo María, Perú, se han convertido en productores de café orgánico certificado.
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Case: Strengthening the Competitiveness of Organic Producers in Andean Microwatersheds

imageSmall fruit and vegetables producers in Huánuco, Peru were supported to form a consortium to sell their organic produce in supermarkets in Lima.

Caso: Fortaleciendo la Competitividad de Productores Orgánicos en Microcuencas Andinas

Pequeños productores de frutas y verduras en Huánuco, Perú fueron apoyados para formar un consorcio con el fin de vender su producción orgánica en los supermercados de Lima.
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Case: Strengthening the Competitiveness of the Stevia Value Chain in Paraguay

imageSmall stevia producers in Paraguay were helped to improve the production and quality of stevia to raise incomes and expand the supply of stevia.

Caso: Fortaleciendo la Competitividad en la Cadena de Valor de Stevia en Paraguay

Pequeños productores de stevia recibieron ayuda para mejorar la producción y calidad de la stevia en Paraguay con el fin de expandir la oferta del producto en mercados internacionales y aumentar sus ingresos.
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