The apparel global value chain (GVC) has been one of the hallmark cases of globalization, since the establishment of the Multifibre Arrangement (MFA) in the early 1970s through the phase-out of the MFA in 2005. The MFA quota system sparked the spread of global production networks in apparel to every corner of the globe, and MFA phase out has led to predictions that large developing country suppliers such as China and India would dominate apparel GVCs after the mid-2000s.

Duke CGGC researchers have tracked global apparel trends in multiple projects, publications and websites. The apparel industry is analyzed in the North Carolina in the Global Economy website, and it is also one of the four industries covered in the CGGC report on \\\"Skills for Upgrading: Workforce Development and GVCs in Developing Countries\\\" Gary Gereffi and Stacey Frederick have published several articles on apparel GVCs, including a chapter in the World Bank book by Cattaneo, Gereffi and Staritz (eds.), Global Value Chains in a Postcrisis World: A Development Perspective (2010), and Frederick has collaborated with Cornelia Staritz in developing a series of detailed country case studies for another World Bank book by Lopez—Acevedo and Robertson (eds.), Sewing Success? Employment, Wages and Poverty Following the End of the Multi-fibre Arrangement (2012).

Peru in the High Quality Cotton Textile and Apparel Global Value Chain: Opportunities for Upgrading

imageThis report analyzes Peru’s participation in the high quality cotton textile and apparel global value chain. The textile and apparel sector is a key pillar of Peru’s manufacturing sector, while high quality cotton has been cultivated for centuries in the country. The study uses the GVC framework to analyze Peru’s position and potential for upgrading in the industry. This report is part of a Duke CGGC study commissioned by the World Bank in 2015/16 to support the growth and productivity agenda in Peru with a focus on three important industries for the country: table grapes, mining equipment and high quality cotton.
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Pro-Poor Development and Power Asymmetries in Global Value Chains

imageThis report presents the asymmetric power relations in global value chains. It examines the limits of private governance and its development implications for local firms and producers in developing countries by drawing on the cases of apparel, cocoa-chocolate, and sugar-‘soft drink’ global value chains.
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Nicaragua and the Apparel Value Chain in the Americas

imageThis report explores how U.S. regional textile and apparel manufacturers are linked to the U.S. industry through textile exports and apparel imports and the the role of trade legislation in the past, present and future of the industry in Nicaragua and the United States.
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The Apparel Global Value Chain: Economic Upgrading and Workforce Development: Chapter 3

imageExport-processing zones in low-cost countries have become synonymous with globalization, but what is the next step for developing countries in apparel? Outlines the skills required to turn assembly lines into one-stop production centers that include design, logistics and brands. This report analyzes the industry in Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Turkey, Lesotho, and Nicaragua.
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Strengthening Nicaragua's Position in the Textile-Apparel Value Chain: Upgrading in the Context of the CAFTA-DR Region

imageThis study examines the competitiveness of the textile-apparel sector in Nicaragua, with the objective of producing a diagnosis of the textile – apparel industry in Nicaragua and the United States, an assessment of the opportunities and obstacles to upgrading, and concrete proposals for steps to be taken in the short and medium term.
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The Global Apparel Value Chain, Trade And The Crisis : Challenges And Opportunities For Developing Countries

imageThis paper analyzes the recent evolution and impact of the global economic crisis on the apparel industry. This paper was commissioned by the World Bank.
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