Environmental Defense Fund (EDF)

The unifying theme of our work with the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF) has been to use the value chain framework to study environmental issues; specifically to identify technologies that can minimize environmental impacts in diverse industries while also creating opportunities to generate U.S. employment. As part of this analysis, we seek to understand the roles of all the players in the value chain and to find leverage points where companies can be leaders in implementing environmental best practices.

CGGC’s relationship with EDF started with a series of four reports under EDF’s Corporate Partnerships Program (2008-2009). These reports analyze the structure and dynamics of four industries (beef and dairy, hog farming, California crops, and real estate) with the objective of identifying lead firms in each chain that could serve as leverage points for adopting environmental best practices. Two more reports within the Corporate Partnership Program on “China Hotspots” (2010) analyzed the development, diffusion, and adoption of two clean technologies in the United States (high-efficiency motors and industrial powder coatings), to identify the actors and factors needed to facilitate their adoption in other countries, particularly China. The reports describe the major advances for each technology, how the industry is organized, and the role of regulations and industry associations in promoting each technology.

In the Manufacturing Climate Solutions (2008-2009) series, value chain analysis is used to shed light on U.S. “green job” opportunities linked to carbon-reducing technologies in 12 industries. Each of the 12 reports look at the linkages between low-carbon technologies and U.S. job creation, including labor and skill requirements. The initial report (Chapters 1-5) was released in November 2008 and looked at five technologies. In 2009, an additional 7 reports were produced (Chapters 6-12) on technologies ranging from electric heat pump water heaters to public transit buses.View more information about this series here

In the Gulf Coast Restoration (2011-2012) report series, CGGC produced three reports on behalf of EDF that analyzed the value chain of firms capable of restoring coastal wetlands in the Mississippi River Delta, an area under threat from human-induced damage and natural disasters. The reports address the question, “\"If restoration were to occur on the scale needed, what kinds of jobs would be created, and where?”

In 2010-2011, CGGC produced four reports and two firm case studies for EDF. The four reports were on lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicles, the shrimp fishery industry in Sinaloa, Mexico, the U.S. smart grid, and opportunities to enhance industrial energy efficiency. CGGC’s most recent project with EDF (2015) focused on identifying actors and opportunities for the solar energy value chain in North Carolina.

The Solar Economy: Widespread Benefits for North Carolina

imageThis report by Duke CGGC for the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF) describes a solar “value chain” of investors, solar developers, construction contractors and solar panel and component manufacturers comprising more than 450 companies. Together, these companies support some 4,300 jobs and represent a $2 billion investment. In addition to jobs, solar industry-related businesses provide income for landowners and tax revenue for N.C. towns, the report states.
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Geosynthetics: Coastal Management Applications in the Gulf

imageCoastal management projects to restore the Gulf Coast nearly all use geosynthetics-polymer-based materials that can improve structure performance, reduce project time and cost, and lessen environmental impact. This study by Duke CGGC for the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF) analyzes 84 firms linked to geosynthetics and coastal management, providing jobs in the five Gulf Coast states and 31 others.
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Restoring Gulf Oyster Reefs: Opportunities for Innovation

imageSeveral natural and man-made stressors are destroying Gulf Coast oyster reefs, jeopardizing a resource that protects the shore, filters water, and increases marine fisheries production. Restoring oyster reefs will maintain these valuable ecosystem services, and support a network of 132 innovative small and medium sized businesses across 22 states.
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Restoring the Gulf Coast: New Markets for Established Firms

imageNatural and human activities have damaged the Gulf Coast, threatening a valuable ecosystem vital to several billion-dollar industries such as seafood and tourism. Restoring the Gulf Coast can protect these assets while creating much-needed U.S. jobs, by engaging at least 140 firms across nearly 400 locations.
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U.S. Smart Grid: Finding New Ways to Cut Carbon and Create Jobs

imageTurning the electric power system into an "energy internet" can reduce CO2 emissions, stimulate technology innovation, expand the use of renewable energy, and create tens of thousands of U.S. jobs.
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The Multiple Pathways to Industrial Energy Efficiency: A Systems and Value Chain Approach

imageIn most companies, significant opportunities exist to improve energy efficiency, and many of them pay for themselves. However, organizational and financial barriers often prevent companies from capturing these savings. Closing this “efficiency gap” can have a big payoff for companies and society as a whole. To understand these barriers and identify strategies to overcome them, the report examines why and how product manufacturers adopt energy-efficiency improvements in their internal operations and supply chains. This report was sponsored by the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF) Energy Program.
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Lithium-ion Batteries for Electric Vehicles: The U.S. Value Chain

imageU.S. firms are racing against more established Asian firms to build a supply chain for the manufacture of batteries for electric vehicles. What's at stake is not just the batteries, but the U.S. position in the future auto industry.This report by Duke CGGC for the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF), found 119 sites spread out across 27 states, that are all playing key roles across the value chain.
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Case Study: A123 Systems - Local Markets and Competitiveness, A Value Chain Analysis

imageAfter years of manufacturing in China, advanced battery maker A123 Systems is also aggressively adding jobs in the United States, responding to federal incentives and a promising U.S. market for electric vehicle batteries. This case study was prepared for the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF).
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Case Study: Cree, Inc. Local Markets and Global Competitiveness: A Value Chain Analysis

imageCree is adding jobs in the United States, but also in China--where the main attraction is not low-cost labor, but rather a large market for LED lighting products.
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A Value Chain Analysis of Wild-Caught Shrimp in Sinaloa, Mexico

imageThis report illustrates the value chain of wild-caught shrimp landed in Sinaloa, Mexico and the environmental implications of fishing practices in the region. It highlights opportunities to link U.S. market interest for this product with development of environmentally sustainable fishing practices in the Gulf of California.
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U.S. Adoption of High-Efficiency Motors and Drives: Lessons Learned

imageMotor systems used by manufacturing industries play a large role in national energy profiles. In the United States, industrial motor systems account for about 17% of total electricity use. U.S. adoption of more efficient motors and motor systems could save an estimated 62-104 billion kilowatt hours of electricity annually, at a cost savings of $3-5 billion. This research was prepared by Duke CGGC and sponsored by the Corporate Partnerships Program of the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF).
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The Development and Diffusion of Powder Coatings in the United States and Europe

Powder coatings eliminate VOCs released during industrial coating processes and offer additional environmental and economic benefits over petroleum-based coatings. The report traces the history of powder coatings in the United States and Europe, identifies the powder coating value chain structure, the ability of key players to affect the industry, and some challenges of the Chinese powder coating market. This research was sponsored by the Corporate Partnerships Program of the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF).
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Public Transit Buses: Chapter 12

imageBuses represent 25,000 to 33,000 domestic jobs, many overlapping with the heavy truck industry. U.S. firms are leading the development of hybrid, all-electric and other "green" buses--the future of the industry. This topic is covered in-depth in this report by Duke CGGC for the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF).
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Wind Power: Generating Electricity and Employment

imageU.S. employment in wind power is estimated at 85,000 jobs and growing quickly, with opportunities to employ workers and capacity from other industries like automotive and aerospace. Opportunities to expand wind power in the United States are explored in this report; the 11th chapter in a series on Manufacturing Climate Solutions written by Duke CGGC for the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF).
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Residential Re-Insulation: Chapter 10

imageWith 46 million underinsulated homes in the United States, an expanding re-insulation market could save energy and create U.S. jobs for contractors, insulation installers, distributors, manufacturers, and material suppliers. This topic is explored in this report by Duke CGGC for the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF) Manufacturing Climate Solutions series.
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Hybrid Drivetrains for Medium- and Heavy-Duty Trucks: Chapter 9

imageThe United States is well positioned to take the lead in hybrid commercial trucks, a new, fast- growing market that promises future U.S. jobs in truck manufacturing, advanced energy storage, electronics, and software. This report was prepared by Duke CGGC for the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF) as part of the Manufacturing Climate Solutions series.
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Carbon Capture and Storage: Chapter 8

imageChapter 8 of the Manufacturing Climate Solutions prepared by Duke CGGC for the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF) focuses on carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies (CCS). These technologies will allow the U.S. to continue using fossil fuel for power generation while also achieving national goals to reduce CO2 emissions. These billion dollar projects also present huge U.S.-based employment opportunities in fields ranging from R&D to manufacturing and construction.
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Recycling Industrial Waste Energy: Chapter 7

imageMany industrial processes discard exhaust heat, combustible gases, and other "waste" energy. These highly recoverable resources can be harnessed to generate electricity, thus saving energy costs, reducing CO2 emissions, creating new jobs, and protecting existing jobs by increasing productivity and competitiveness. This report by Duke CGGC for the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF) explores this topic.
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Heat Pump Water Heaters: Chapter 6

imageCurrent residential heat pump water heater products are add-on units used in conjunction with conventional storage tanks and they are produced by a handful of very small U.S. companies. The recent introduction of ENERGY STAR water heater criteria appears to be incentivizing some larger appliance manufacturers to develop new heat pump water heater products that will be more widely available. If consumer interest in heat pump water heaters increases, the market would need to scale up significantly to meet greater demands, opening greater opportunities for U.S. component manufacturing in the value chain. This topic is explored in-depth in this report by Duke CGGC for the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF).
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A Value Chain Analysis of the U.S. Beef & Dairy Industries

imageLivestock farms are a major source of greenhouse gases. Certain practices in feeding and manure management can reduce these and other environmental impacts, but how do you encourage 967,440 U.S. farms, ranches and feedlots to adopt these best practices? In this report by Duke CGGC for the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF), one finding is that the strongest leverage for effecting such change lies in the downstream players in the value chain.
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Super Soil Systems: Chapter 5

imageSuper Soil is not yet commercially available, but it is an example of a technology that could potentially be widely adopted. The adoption of this or similar technologies would involve manufacturing jobs producing large tanks. Additional manufacturing jobs would be needed to make the equipment, along with the associated requirements for steel, glass, concrete, and other materials, and construction jobs to build the facility. This new technology for treating hog waste could allow the United States to become a global market leader in a sector where, until now, no adequate alternative has been available. This report was prepared by Duke CGGC for the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF).
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Concentrating Solar Power: Clean Energy for the Electric Grid

imageConcentrating solar power (CSP) represents a clean, powerful, endless, and reliable source of energy with the capacity to entirely satisfy the present and future electricity needs in the U.S. The new market for concentrating solar power plants has potential to create numerous U.S. manufacturing and construction jobs as U.S. companies grow and foreign firms come to the United States. This report was the fourth chapter in a series on Manufacturing Climate Solutions written by Duke CGGC for the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF).
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Auxiliary Power Units for Trucks: Chapter 3

imageIntegration of auxiliary power units into long-haul truck manufacturing in the near future will likely increase penetration rates dramatically, with a corresponding boost to manufacturing. Expanded production of APUs would create economic opportunity at all stages of the value chain by increasing purchases from material and component suppliers. Additional value chain opportunities will likely come when APU technology is integrated as a component in tractor manufacturing rather than being an aftermarket product. The report was written by Duke CGGC for the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF).
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High-Performance Windows: Chapter 2

imageThis report by Duke CGGC for the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF) explores high-performance window technologies. The U.S. industry faces new, more stringent efficiency criteria that may spur manufacturers to retool production lines and further innovate. Over the course of criteria changes, jobs may have to develop more efficient products. The ability of companies to respond to criteria changes may determine which companies will benefit and which will struggle to compete.
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LED Lighting: Chapter 1

imageThis report by Duke CGGC for the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF) explores light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for lighting applications. LEDs are a semiconductor technology whose application to general-purpose lighting is rapidly growing, with significant potential for energy savings. The market for general-purpose LED lighting is currently very small, but it is growing rapidly as the technology improves and costs go down. Leading U.S. manufacturers find it crucial to ensure high quality and to protect their innovations--two good reasons to keep the manufacturing close to home.
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A Value Chain Analysis of the U.S. Pork Industry

imageOver-use of antibiotics in hog production poses the risk of creating antibiotic-resistant bacteria, seriously threatening human health. Reducing antibiotic use, however, poses challenges to hog farmers. By analyzing the value chain, we can better understand the industry’s dynamics, preparing the way for further work to find ways of protecting public health that also make good business sense. This report by Duke CGGC for the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF).
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A Value Chain Analysis of Selected California Crops

imageCalifornia is the most diversified agricultural economy in the world, generating more agricultural value than many countries. In the value chains for two selected crops—grain corn and processed tomatoes—we identify the players positioned to encourage environmental best practices. This report was prepared by Duke CGGC for the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF).
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An Analysis of the U.S. Real Estate Value Chain with Environmental Metrics

imageRecognizing that buildings account for 40% of U.S. energy consumption, EDF asked CGGC to analyze the U.S. real estate industry and find key firms that are well-positioned to innovative business practices to reduce building energy use. Among the report's key findings: (1) In the finance segment, there is greater leverage on the equity than the debt side. In other words, when it comes to working with building owners and developers, investors have greater influence than lenders. (2) The greatest energy-savings potential lies in companies that own and operate real estate, and firms that either invest in them or manage property for them. The report was prepared by Duke CGGC for the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF). In the video, Marcy Lowe, discusses CGGC value chain analysis research on the U.S. real estate industry.
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