Research Reports

GVC: Food and Agriculture

Global value chains and agrifood standards: Challenges and possibilities for smallholders in developing countries

2010-10-12   |   Durham   |   Gary Gereffi, Joonkoo Lee, Janet Beauvais
The rise of private food standards has brought forth an ongoing debate about whether they work as a barrier for smallholders and hinder poverty reduction in developing countries. This paper uses a global value chain approach to explain the relationship between value chain structure and agrifood safety and quality standards and to discuss the challenges and possibilities this entails for the upgrading of smallholders. It maps four potential value chain scenarios depending on the degree of concentration in the markets for agrifood supply (farmers and manufacturers) and demand (supermarkets and other food retailers) and discusses the impact of lead firms and key intermediaries on smallholders in different chain situations. Each scenario is illustrated with case examples. Theoretical and policy issues are discussed, along with proposals for future research in terms of industry structure, private governance, and sustainable value chains.
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Agricultural Value Chains in the Mexicali Valley of Mexico

September 15, 2010   |   Durham, NC   |   Lukas Brun
This study identifies the producers and buyers of the major crops grown in the Mexicali Valley – cotton, wheat, alfalfa, asparagus, and green onions. The report also reviews the public commitments made by these economic actors to sustainable environmental practices in their corporate sustainability reports.
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The Marketing and Distribution of Fast Food

September 3, 2010   |   Durham, NC
This chapter seeks to advance the multilevel approach to studying childhood obesity by focusing on the "macro" level of corporations in the global economy. We use a global value chains (GVC) framework to explain how the structure of food and agricultural value chains, with an emphasis on the fast-food segment, affects individual consumption choices.
Chapter

Trade, Transnational Corporations and Food Consumption: A GVC Approach

April 19, 2010   |   Durham, NC
This paper explores the connections between the spread of obesity, especially in developing countries, and the interrelated expansion of trade, foreign direct investment, and transnational corporations (TNCs). The authors outline how the main concepts and methods of global value chains analysis can be applied to identify the direct and indirect linkages between the global economic processes of trade, foreign and direct investment, and food consumption.
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U.S.-Based Food and Agriculture Value Chains and their Relevance to Healthy Diets

Dec 12, 2009   |   Durham, NC
This paper outlines the global value chains (GVCs) of the chicken and tomato industries, showing how these industries have changed over time, who is driving that change, and how different segments of the value chain affect healthy diets and impact low-income populations. The authors specifically address how the lead firms in the global value chains of the chicken and tomato industries are a part of the processed food revolution and how this potentially impacts low-income communities.
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A Value Chain Analysis of the U.S. Beef & Dairy Industries

February 16, 2009   |   Durham, NC   |   Marcy Lowe, Gary Gereffi
Livestock farms are a major source of greenhouse gases. Certain practices in feeding and manure management can reduce these and other environmental impacts, but how do you encourage 967,440 U.S. farms, ranches and feedlots to adopt these best practices? We find that the strongest leverage for effecting such change lies in the downstream players in the value chain.
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A Value Chain Analysis of the U.S. Pork Industry

October 3, 2008   |   Durham, NC   |   Marcy Lowe, Gary Gereffi
Over-use of antibiotics in hog production poses the risk of creating antibiotic-resistant bacteria, seriously threatening human health. Reducing antibiotic use, however, poses challenges to hog farmers. By analyzing the value chain, we can better understand the industry’s dynamics, preparing the way for further work to find ways of protecting public health that also make good business sense.
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A Value Chain Analysis of Selected California Crops

July 4, 2008   |   Durham, NC   |   Marcy Lowe
California is the most diversified agricultural economy in the world, generating more agricultural value than many countries. In the value chains for two selected crops—grain corn and processed tomatoes—we identify the players positioned to encourage environmental best practices.
EDF California Crops Report  EDF Report: Appendix A and B

A Global Value Chains Approach to Food, Healthy Diets, and Childhood Obesity

November 5, 2007   |   Durham, NC   |   Gary Gereffi, Michelle Christian
A challenge associated with the nutrition transition in developing countries (i.e.,simultaneous presence of over-nutrition and under-nutrition, both being most prevalent in the poorest population segments) is the integration of their markets into the global economy. This integration determined rapid and strong changes in the production and trade of agricultural goods in the developing countries as well as growing foreign direct investments in food processing and retailing, and the expansion of food advertisements with obvious implications for dietary patterns and the risk of obesity.
Paper