Targeting Inclusive Development: A Value Chain Approach to Sewer Infrastructure Investment
April 2015 | Durham, NC | Jack Daly, Lukas Brun, Andrew GuinnThe purpose of this report is to investigate how six local governments investing in water infrastructure have successfully incorporated targeted businesses in capital improvements, while also identifying which segments of the value chain have the highest levels of opportunity for these businesses.
The Solar Economy: Widespread Benefits for North Carolina
February 2015 | Durham, NC | Lukas Brun, Danny Hamrick, Jack DalyThe report describes a solar “value chain” of investors, solar developers, construction contractors and solar panel and component manufacturers comprising more than 450 companies. Together, these companies support some 4,300 jobs and represent a $2 billion investment. In addition to jobs, solar industry-related businesses provide income for landowners and tax revenue for N.C. towns, the report states. The economic impact of N.C.’s solar industry extends beyond its solar facilities, though.
Public-Private Partnerships in Global Value Chains: Can They Actually Benefit the Poor?
February 2015 | Durham, NC | Ajmal Abdulsamad, Shawn Stokes, Gary GereffiOver the last two decades, the contextual changes characterized by economic globalization not only influenced patterns of production, competition, and trade; they also provided opportunities for public-private partnerships (PPPs) to achieve development objectives. Today, global value chains (GVCs) account for an estimated 80 percent of world trade (UNCTAD, 2013). Integration in GVCs offers significant potential for economic growth in developing countries. The share of value-added trade in gross domestic product (GDP) for developing countries is on average 30 percent compared to 18 percent in developed countries (UNCTAD, 2013). The past 15 years also witnessed a proliferation of development PPPs between the private sector and the international development community.
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The Future of Manufacturing: Driving Capabilities, Enabling Investments
November 2014 | Dubai | Gary Gereffi, Stacey FrederickThis report focuses on an analysis of trends in global manufacturing, mostly from a value chain perspective, and represents a joint effort between the World Economic Forum Global Agenda Council on the Future of Manufacturing and the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO). It emphasizes that future developments in global manufacturing are increasingly relying upon the development of capabilities related to innovation, labour and infrastructures. Developed countries have experienced a substantial decline in manufacturing employment, but this trend has also been counterbalanced by improvements in manufacturing capabilities. While developed countries remain among the most competitive, as noted by UNIDO’s Competitive Industrial Performance Index, many developing countries have substantially improved their industrial competitiveness. An overview of the apparel industry stresses the fact that value chains can be upgraded to help manufacturing actors develop their capabilities.
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Infrastructure Investment Creates American Jobs
October 2014 | Washington, DC | Lukas Brun, Jason Jolley, Andrew Hull, Stacey FrederickDuke CGGC researchers explored for the Alliance of America Manufacturing the current state of transportation infrastructure and the economic impact of additional investment in renewing infrastructure. They found that the U.S. ranks 16th overall in transportation infrastructure and that each dollar of investment returns 3.54 in economic activity, creating 21,671 jobs for each $1 billion invested in transportation infrastructure.
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Nicaragua and the Apparel Value Chain in the Americas
March 2014 | Durham, NC | Stacey Frederick, Jennifer Bair, Gary GereffiThis report explores how U.S. regional textile and apparel manufacturers are linked to the U.S. industry through textile exports and apparel imports and the the role of trade legislation in the past, present and future of the industry in Nicaragua and the United States.
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Burundi in the Agribusiness, Coffee and Energy Global Value Chains: Skills for Private Sector Development: Project Overview
February 2014 | Durham, NC | Penny Bamber, Andrew Guinn, Gary GereffiThe Skills for Private Sector Development Project, commissioned by the Education Division of the World Bank, employed the GVC framework to identify specific workforce development strategies to foster upgrading within three industries crucial to Burundi's economic development: agribusiness, coffee and energy. Upgrading in these value chains is dependent on developing new capabilities and generally requires a substantially different set of workers with different skill sets. Knowing the requirements at each stage can help policy makers to prepare the workforce for the needs of future upgrading strategies.
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Burundi in the Energy Global Value Chain: Skills for Private Sector Development
February 2014 | Durham, NC | Penny Bamber, Andrew Guinn, Gary GereffiThe Skills for Private Sector Development Project, commissioned by the Education Division of the World Bank, employed the GVC framework to identify specific workforce development strategies to foster upgrading within three industries crucial to Burundi's economic development: agribusiness, coffee and energy. Upgrading in these value chains is dependent on developing new capabilities and generally requires a substantially different set of workers with different skill sets. Knowing the requirements at each stage can help policy makers to prepare the workforce for the needs of future upgrading strategies. Burundi faces high and growing demand for electrical energy.1 Political and economic instability over the last two decades, however, has undermined the development of the country’s energy sector. With very low installed capacity, Burundi faces significant challenges with respect to energy supplies in the country. 90% of the country’s energy needs are currently met by the burning of biomass, primarily wood, for cooking and heat contributing to deforestation and health care issues, and the lack of electrical energy supply constrains the development of the country in the long term. As the country continues to rebuild its economy following the end of the crisis, policy makers, donors and the private sector have expressed interest in bolstering the sector, both as a means to promote economic output and also to leverage the sector for improved labor productivity and job creation for the large number of unemployed youth in the country.
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Burundi in the Coffee Global Value Chain: Skills for Private Sector Development
February 2014 | Durham, NC | Penny Bamber, Andrew Guinn, Gary GereffiThe Skills for Private Sector Development Project, commissioned by the Education Division of the World Bank, employed the GVC framework to identify specific workforce development strategies to foster upgrading within three industries crucial to Burundi's economic development: agribusiness, coffee and energy. Upgrading in these value chains is dependent on developing new capabilities and generally requires a substantially different set of workers with different skill sets. Knowing the requirements at each stage can help policy makers to prepare the workforce for the needs of future upgrading strategies. Arabica coffee has been commercially grown and exported from Burundi for decades, even during periods of economic and political instability. The coffee sector is crucial to the Burundian economy, not only because it provides employment to a large number of smallholder farmers in the country, but also because the majority of the country’s foreign exchange earnings derive from coffee exports. As the country continues to rebuild its economy following the end of the crisis, there is keen interest from policy makers, donors and industry actors to bolster the sector in general, and specifically to identify potential opportunities to leverage the sector for improved labor productivity and job creation for the large number of unemployed youth in the country.
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Burundi in the Agribusiness Global Value Chain: Skills for Private Sector Development
February 2014 | Durham, NC | Penny Bamber, Ajmal Abdulsamad, Gary GereffiThe Skills for Private Sector Development Project, commissioned by the Education Division of the World Bank, employed the GVC framework to identify specific workforce development strategies to foster upgrading within three industries crucial to Burundi's economic development: agribusiness, coffee and energy. Upgrading in these value chains is dependent on developing new capabilities and generally requires a substantially different set of workers with different skill sets. Knowing the requirements at each stage can help policy makers to prepare the workforce for the needs of future upgrading strategies. Agriculture is the central pillar of Burundi’s economy, accounting for more than one third of the country’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and employing virtually the entire rural workforce. With good geographic conditions and a suitable climate to production, the country has the potential to be a strong participant in the regional agricultural market. Yet, after years of conflict, the country faces important productivity, infrastructure and institutional challenges that continue to undermine the development of a market-oriented sector, and agriculture remains a primarily subsistence activity, dominated by smallholders with poor knowledge of modern agricultural practices and weak connections to the formal economy. All these constraints have limited the possibility of the country to participate in the global agribusiness value chain. However, Burundi is experiencing slowly rising incomes, growing domestic demand for foodstuffs and a need to formalize the country’s economy, placing pressure on the agricultural sector to modernize and organize to create productive, off-farm employment opportunities, generate revenues and, importantly for the short-term, contribute to the country’s food security.
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The Tobacco Global Value Chain in Low Income Countries
February 2014 | Durham, NC | Annelies Goger, Penny Bamber, Gary GereffiThis report uses global value chains (GVC) analysis to understand how the changing dynamics of the global tobacco industry are affecting producers in low-income countries that are heavily reliant on the tobacco industry. Increased global adoption of tobacco control measures has raised concerns about whether decreases in demand as a result of tobacco control policies negatively impact small producers and increase poverty. These concerns have led to support for crop substitution strategies, although successful implementation has varied. This report offers new perspectives and avenues for investigating the viability of economic development pathways out of tobacco that are remunerative and sustainable for smallholders.
Capturing the Gains in Africa, Making the Most of Global Value Chain Participation
February 2014 | Durham, NC | Annelies Goger, Andrew Hull, Stephanie Barrientos, Gary Gereffi, Shane GodfreyThis report was commissioned as a background paper for the annual OECD publication, “Africa Economic Outlook (AEO)” 2014. It provides a critical overview of the Capturing the Gains (CTG) research findings from Africa across three industries: horticulture, apparel and tourism. Specific emphasis is placed on identifying opportunities and challenges for economic and social upgrading within African GVCs so that workers and small producers can capture a fairer share of the gains from trade and economic growth. The report also offers sector specific GVC policy recommendations for African policy makers.
The Economic Impact of the High Point Market
October 2013 | Durham, NC | Lukas Brun, Bill LesterThe Center on Globalization, Governance & Competitiveness at Duke University was engaged by the High Point Market Authority (HPMA) to conduct a comprehensive economic and fiscal impact of the High Point Market located in High Point, NC. The Market, conducted bi-annually, is the largest home furnishings market in the world and attracts over 75,000 visitors each market session who descend on High Point and its environs to buy, sell and market a wide variety of furniture, accessories, and design services. Beyond attracting a large number of visitors from outside the state, the Market serves a critical function for the broader furnishings industry and is a key node in the overall furniture industry’s value chain. In particular, it is widely known by local stakeholders that a large portion of the sales contacts and transactions for local manufacturing companies are initiated and negotiated at the Market.
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Brazilian Manufacturing in International Perspective: A Global Value Chain Analysis of Brazil's Aerospace, Medical Devices, and Electronics Industries
September 2013 | Durham, NC | Timothy Sturgeon, Gary Gereffi, Andrew Guinn, Ezequiel ZylberbergDuke CGGC and MIT's Industrial Performance Center conducted a year-long study of the Brazil's position in the aerospace, medical devices and electronics global value chains. This report, sponsored by the Confederação Nacional da Indústria in Brazil, presents key findings from the research and provides recommendations to improve Brazilian industrial policy.
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Costa Rica in Global Value Chains: An Upgrading Analysis
August 2013 | Durham, NC | Gary Gereffi, Penny Bamber, Stacey Frederick, Karina Fernandez-StarkDuke CGGC embarked on this study for the Ministry of Foreign Trade (COMEX) in Costa Rica to understand the participation of Costa Rica in four global value chains: medical devices, electronics, aerospace and offshore services. The ultimate goal of this study was to provide a set of recommendations to the Costa Rican government to enhance the participation and upgrading in the industries selected.
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Costa Rica in Global Value Chains: An Upgrading Analysis: Introduction
August 2013 | Durham, NC | Gary Gereffi, Penny Bamber, Stacey Frederick, Karina Fernandez-StarkThis introductory chapter outlines the analytical framework employed for the study, examines Costa Rica's rapid shift from agricultural exports to high tech exports and provides an introduction to relevant elements of Costa Rica's investment, trade and education policies.
Costa Rica in the Medical Devices Global Value Chain: Opportunities for Upgrading
August 2013 | Durham, NC | Penny Bamber, Gary GereffiCovering a broad spectrum of products from inexpensive bandages, to technology-intensive hearing aids and tissue heart valves, to high-cost items such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) machines, the medical devices sector offers high growth potential. The report uses the GVC framework to analyze Costa Rica´s position and potential for upgrading in this industry.
Costa Rica in the Electronics Global Value Chain: Opportunities for Upgrading
August 2013 | Durham, NC | Stacey Frederick, Gary GereffiThe electronics industry encompasses a vast array of products that feed into markets ranging from consumer products to high-end medical equipment. This report uses the GVC framework to illustrate opportunities for Costa Rica's established electronic component sector to capitalize on other complementary growth markets in the country including medical devices, automotive and aerospace.
Costa Rica in the Aerospace Global Value Chain: Opportunities for Entry & Upgrading
August 2013 | Durham, NC | Penny Bamber, Gary GereffiThe global aerospace sector is a challenging industry to enter, yet several developing countries have been able to make significant in-roads. This report uses the global value chain (GVC) framework to understand the complexity of the industry and the numerous subsystems of which it is composed in order to provide insight on entry strategies.
Costa Rica in the Offshore Services Global Value Chain: Opportunities for Upgrading
August 2013 | Durham, NC | Karina Fernandez-Stark, Penny Bamber, Gary GereffiCosta Rica has been successful in attracting some of the top companies in the offshore services industry to establish operations within the country, particularly in BPO operations and other shared services. This study uses the GVC framework to analyze the country's potential for further upgrading and consolidating its position in the industry.
Wheat Value Chains and Food Security in the Middle East and North Africa Region
August 2013 | Ghada Ahmed, Danny Hamrick, Andrew Guinn, Ajmal Abdulsamad, Gary GereffiThis report focuses on the wheat global value chain in the energy-exporting countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, with particular emphasis on Egypt, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Syria and the UAE. It is funded by a grant to Duke from the US Department of Defense's MINERVA Initiative.
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US Coal and the Technology Innovation Frontier: What role does coal play in our energy future?
March 2013 | Durham, NC | Ghada Ahmed, Ajmal Abdulsamad, Gary GereffiThe U.S. coal industry is coping with declining consumption as the nation burns less coal to generate electricity. The electric power sector drives coal demand and consumes over 90% of coal production. The coal industry is facing a number of challenges that include increasing production costs and competition from natural gas in the electric power market. The decreasing share of coal in power generation implies that the future of coal depends on technologies that change the way we manage and use coal such as carbon capture and utilization, coal gasification and coal liquefaction technologies.
Realizing the Potential of African Agriculture: Innovations and Market Access for Smallholders Farmers
May 2013 | Durham, NC | Ajmal Abdulsamad, Lukas Brun, Gary GereffiAgriculture increasingly occurs in a context where private entrepreneurs coordinate extensive value chains linking producers to consumers, sometimes across multiple countries. These dynamics drive agricultural development and innovation far more than before across sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). More providers of knowledge are on the scene, particularly from the private sector and civil society, and they interact in new ways to generate ideas or develop responses to dynamics in agro-food value chains. A growing number of entrepreneurial smallholders are organizing to enter these value chains, but others struggle with the economic marginalization as innovative solutions do not reach them due to missing links in the value chains.
Global Value Chains, Economic Upgrading and Gender: Case Studies of the Horticulture, Tourism, and Call Center Industries
January 2013 | Washington, DC | Penny Bamber, Karina Fernandez-Stark, Ghada Ahmed, Michelle ChristianThis book provides a gendered analysis of the horticulture, tourism, and call center global value chains (GVCs) based on a survey of the literature and case studies carried out in Honduras, Kenya, and the Arab Republic of Egypt. The studies show that GVCs and their upgrading dynamics have important gender dimensions, and that integration and upgrading are influenced by, and have an impact on, gender relations. The book is edited by Cornelia Staritz and José Guilherme Reis.
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The NSPS Shipbuilding Value Chains
January 2013 | Durham, NC | Gary Gereffi, Lukas Brun, Shawn Stokes, Andrew GuinnThe report analyzes the anatomy of the ships procured under Canada’s National Shipbuilding Procurement Strategy (NSPS), identifies opportunities for companies to participate in their construction and maintenance, and makes recommendations to government about supporting Nova Scotia companies, moving into higher value-added activities, and developing the regional value chain.
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Inclusion of Small- and Medium-Sized Producers in High-Value Agro-Food Value Chains
December 2012 | Durham, NC | Karina Fernandez-Stark, Penny Bamber, Gary GereffiThis paper uses the global value chain methodology to analyze Inter-American Development Bank Multilateral Investment Fund (IDB-MIF) initiatives in Latin America that aim to include high-value agriculture small producers in the national, regional and global chains. Based on extensive primary and secondary research, we propose a holistic model for these interventions.
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Assessment of Five High-Value Agriculture Inclusive Business Projects Sponsored by the Inter- American Development Bank in Latin America
December 2012 | Durham, NC | Karina Fernandez-Stark, Penny BamberThis paper is a summary of five IDB-MIF projects that aimed to include small- and medium-sized producers in high-value agriculture value chains. The objective of this paper is to provide a set of lessons learned to design and implement efficient, effective and sustainable projects in the future.
Basic Principles and Guidelines for Impactful and Sustainable Inclusive Business Interventions in High-Value Agro-Food Value Chains
December 2012 | Durham, NC | Karina Fernandez-Stark, Penny BamberThe objective of this report is to inform IDB-MIF officers and management how global value chain interventions can be more effectively designed, monitored and evaluated to ensure sustainable inclusion of small- and medium-sized producers in high-value agricultural chains.
The Competitiveness of Small Organic Cocoa Producers of the National Confederation of Dominican Cocoa Producers (CONACADO)
December 2012 | Durham, NC | Penny Bamber, Karina Fernandez-StarkSmall organic cocoa producers in the Dominican Republic improve their competitiveness by increasing cultivation productivity.
Caso: Competitividad de Pequeños Productores de Cacao Orgánico de la Confederación Nacional de Cacaocultores Dominicanos (Conacado)Pequeños productores de cacao orgánico en República Dominicana mejoraron su competitividad mediante el incremento de la productividad de las plantaciones.
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OECD Background Paper: Upgrading in Global Value Chains: Addressing the Skills Challenge in Developing Countries
September 2012 | Durham, NC | Karina Fernandez-Stark, Penny Bamber, Gary GereffiThis report was commissioned by OECD as a background paper for the annual OECD publication, “Perspectives of Development” 2013. This report examines the role of workforce development using the GVC methodology in four industries: apparel, fruit and vegetables, offshore services and tourism in 19 developing countries. The report presents a typology for policy recommendations to enhance the capabilities of the labor force to support GVC upgrading.
Case: Supporting the Competitiveness of Central American Coffee
July 2012 | Durham, NC | Penny Bamber, Karina Fernandez-StarkAfter the coffee crisis at the turn of the century, a selected group of small and medium coffee producers in five Central American countries received technical assistance to produce higher value specialty coffee and help to establish market linkages with global buyers.
Caso: Apoyando la Competitividad del Café CentroamericanoDespués de la crisis del café ocurrida a principios de siglo, un grupo selecto de pequeños y medianos productores de café de 5 países de Centroamérica recibió asistencia técnica para producir café de especialidad y contactos con compradores globales.
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Case: Development of Micro and Small Rural Apicultural Producers in Nicaragua & Honduras
July 2012 | Durham, NC | Penny Bamber, Karina Fernandez-StarkMicro- and small honey producers were helped to enter into the domestic (Honduras) and global (Nicaragua) value chains.
Caso: Desarrollo de Micro y Pequeños Productores Apícolas en Nicaragua y HondurasMicro y pequeños productores de miel fueron apoyados para insertarse en la cadena local de la miel (Honduras) y en la cadena global de la miel (Nicaragua).
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Case: Conversion to Organic Cacao Cultivation in Peru
July 2012 | Durham, NC | Penny Bamber, Karina Fernandez-StarkSmall producers, members of a large, established coffee and cocoa cooperative in Tingo María, Perú, converted to certified organic production of cocoa.
Caso: Conversión hacia un Cultivo Orgánico de Cacao en PerúPequeños productores de cacao y café, miembros de la Cooperativa Industrial Naranjillo (COOPAIN), una cooperativa grande y consolidada en Tingo María, Perú, se han convertido en productores de café orgánico certificado.
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Case: Strengthening the Competitiveness of Organic Producers in Andean Microwatersheds
July 2012 | Durham, NC | Penny Bamber, Karina Fernandez-StarkSmall fruit and vegetables producers in Huánuco, Peru were supported to form a consortium to sell their organic produce in supermarkets in Lima.
Caso: Fortaleciendo la Competitividad de Productores Orgánicos en Microcuencas AndinasPequeños productores de frutas y verduras en Huánuco, Perú fueron apoyados para formar un consorcio con el fin de vender su producción orgánica en los supermercados de Lima.
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Case: Strengthening the Competitiveness of the Stevia Value Chain in Paraguay
July 2012 | Durham, NC | Penny Bamber, Karina Fernandez-StarkSmall stevia producers in Paraguay were helped to improve the production and quality of stevia to raise incomes and expand the supply of stevia.
Caso: Fortaleciendo la Competitividad en la Cadena de Valor de Stevia en ParaguayPequeños productores de stevia recibieron ayuda para mejorar la producción y calidad de la stevia en Paraguay con el fin de expandir la oferta del producto en mercados internacionales y aumentar sus ingresos.
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Geosynthetics: Coastal Management Applications in the Gulf
July 2012 | Durham, NC | Shawn Stokes, Susan Wunderink, Marcy Lowe, Gary GereffiCoastal management projects to restore the Gulf Coast nearly all use geosynthetics-polymer-based materials that can improve structure performance, reduce project time and cost, and lessen environmental impact. This study analyzes 84 firms linked to geosynthetics and coastal management, providing jobs in the five Gulf Coast states and 31 others.
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U.S. Bus Rapid Transit
July 2012 | Durham, NC | Marcy Lowe, Monica LaAs more U.S. cities consider adopting Bus Rapid Transit, CGGC researchers offer a new online tool to help decision-makers understand the value chain. A new report, supported by the Rockefeller Foundation, with interactive database analyzes the value chain of 390 firms that provide vehicles, technology, and services for high-quality BRT. Links below are provided to the final report, the interactive database, and proceedings of a working meeting convened by CGGC on March 8, 2012 with support from The Rockefeller Foundation.
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Restoring Gulf Oyster Reefs: Opportunities for Innovation
June 2012 | Durham, NC | Shawn Stokes, Susan Wunderink, Marcy Lowe, Gary GereffiSeveral natural and man-made stressors are destroying Gulf Coast oyster reefs, jeopardizing a resource that protects the shore, filters water, and increases marine fisheries production. Restoring oyster reefs will maintain these valuable ecosystem services, and support a network of 132 innovative small and medium sized businesses across 22 states.
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Accessing Ocean Technology Value Chains: a Guide for the Canadian Trade Commissioner Service
April 2012 | Durham, NC | Lukas Brun, Joonkoo Lee, Gary GereffiIncreasing access of Canada's small and medium-sized enterprises to ocean technology value chains.
Nova Scotia's Ocean Technologies
March 2012 | Durham, NC | Gary Gereffi, Lukas Brun, Joonkoon Lee, Mary TurnipseedThis report focuses on increasing the competitiveness of the ocean technology sector in Nova Scotia.
Manual: Desarrollo Económico Local y Cadenas Globales de Valor
December 2011 | Durham, NC | Karina Fernández-Stark, Gary GereffiEste manual tiene por objeto informar a los equipos de investigación del Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo en América Latina acerca de una metodología que permite analizar casos de Desarrollo Económico Local (DEL). En este instructivo se ha incluido el marco tradicional de los estudios DEL y, además, se ha incorporado la metodología de las cadenas globales de valor con el fin de analizar cómo los sectores productivos están colaborando en el desarrollo económico local y, a la vez, cómo los micro, pequeños y medianos empresarios están incluidos en la cadena.
Restoring the Gulf Coast: New Markets for Established Firms
December 2011 | Durham, NC | Marcy Lowe, Shawn Stokes, Gary GereffiNatural and human activities have damaged the Gulf Coast, threatening a valuable ecosystem vital to several billion-dollar industries such as seafood and tourism. Restoring the Gulf Coast can protect these assets while creating much-needed U.S. jobs, by engaging at least 140 firms across nearly 400 locations.
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Skills for Upgrading: Workforce Development and Global Value Chains in Developing Countries
November 2011 | Durham, NC | Gary Gereffi, Karina Fernandez-Stark, Phil PsilosThis research project examines workforce development strategies in developing countries in the context of the shifting upgrading dynamics of global value chains. Funded by RTI International and carried out by Duke CGGC researchers in collaboration with RTI, this research addresses policymakers, donors and development practitioners to improve our understanding of how workforce development strategies can enhance the upgrading efforts and competitiveness of developing countries in global industries.
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Workforce Development in the Global Economy: Linking Skills and Capabilities
November 2011 | Durham, NC | Phil Psilos, Gary GereffiValue chain practice has become widely utilized in enterprise and industry development in recent years, yet there is almost no literature on workforce development in the context of what we now know about the dynamic upgrading trajectories of countries in global value chains. This introductory chapter highlights the importance of adopting a complementary GVC approach to workforce development to improve the participation and competitiveness of developing countries in the global economy.
The Fruit and Vegetables Global Value Chain: Economic Upgrading and Workforce Development
November 2011 | Durham, NC | Karina Fernandez-Stark, Penny Bamber, Gary GereffiShows the shift of fruit and vegetable preparation from rural households to the urban kitchen, and highlights the new skills and global standards required of workers and suppliers in developing countries to meet the needs of global supermarkets.
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The Apparel Global Value Chain: Economic Upgrading and Workforce Development
November 2011 | Durham, NC | Karina Fernandez-Stark, Stacey Frederick, Gary GereffiExport-processing zones in low-cost countries have become synonymous with globalization, but what is the next step for developing countries in apparel? Outlines the skills required to turn assembly lines into one-stop production centers that include design, logistics and brands.
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The Offshore Services Global Value Chain: Economic Upgrading and Workforce Development
November 2011 | Durham, NC | Karina Fernandez-Stark, Penny Bamber, Gary GereffiDeveloping countries around the world are competing to become the next Bangalore, but they need to take various steps to ensure their human capital can meet the exacting demands and professional certifications required by developed world clients.
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The Tourism Global Value Chain: Economic Upgrading and Workforce Development
November 2011 | Durham, NC | Michelle Christian, Karina Fernandez-Stark, Ghada Ahmed, Gary GereffiGlobal tourists are traveling further, faster and more frequently than ever before. This report indicates how developing countries can prepare their tourism workforce to provide the high levels of customer service expected by today’s sophisticated traveler.
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Meeting the Upgrading Challenge: Dynamic Workforces for Diversified Economies
November 2011 | Durham, NC | Karina Fernandez-Stark, Penny Bamber, Gary Gereffi, Phil Psilos, Joe DeStefanoThis final chapter summarizes the key findings of the "Skills for Upgrading" research project in four thematic areas: upgrading, workforce skills, institutions and stakeholders, and global standards. We also offer a list of recommendations regarding workforce development strategies for donors and development practitioners to best prepare the workforce in developing countries to respond to the growing demands of global industries.
Global Value Chain Analysis: A Primer
May 2011 | Durham, NC | Gary Gereffi, Karina Fernandez-StarkThe global economy is increasingly structured around global value chains (GVCs) that account for a rising share of international trade, global GDP and employment. The evolution of GVCs in sectors as diverse as commodities, apparel, electronics, tourism and business service outsourcing has significant implications in terms of global trade, production and employment and how developing country firms, producers and workers are integrated in the global economy. GVCs link firms, workers and consumers around the world and often provide a stepping stone for firms and workers in developing countries to integrate into the global economy.
Smart Grid: Core Firms in the Research Triangle Region, NC
May 2011 | Durham, NC | Marcy LoweThe Research Triangle is a smart grid hotspot, with specialized R&D centers, supportive government policies, and roughly 60 core firms whose capabilities stretch across the entire value chain.
U.S. Smart Grid: Finding New Ways to Cut Carbon and Create Jobs
April 2011 | Durham, NC | Marcy Lowe, Hua Fan, Gary GereffiTurning the electric power system into an "energy internet" can reduce CO2 emissions, stimulate technology innovation, expand the use of renewable energy, and create tens of thousands of U.S. jobs.
The Multiple Pathways to Industrial Energy Efficiency: A Systems and Value Chain Approach
February 2011 | Durham, NC | Lukas Brun, Gary GereffiIn most companies, significant opportunities exist to improve energy efficiency, and many of them pay for themselves. However, organizational and financial barriers often prevent companies from capturing these savings. Closing this “efficiency gap” can have a big payoff for companies and society as a whole. To better understand these barriers to efficiency and potential strategies to overcome them, the report examines why and how product manufacturers adopt energy-efficiency improvements in their internal operations and supply chains.
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Strengthening Nicaragua's Position in the Textile-Apparel Value Chain: Upgrading in the Context of the CAFTA-DR Region
December 2010 | Durham, NC | Gary Gereffi, Jennifer BairThis study examines the competitiveness of the textile-apparel sector in Nicaragua, with the objective of producing a diagnosis of the textile – apparel industry in Nicaragua and the United States, an assessment of the opportunities and obstacles to upgrading, and concrete proposals for steps to be taken in the short and medium term.
Lithium-ion Batteries for Electric Vehicles: The U.S. Value Chain
October 2010 | Durham, NC | Marcy Lowe, Saori Tokuoka, Tali Trigg, Gary GereffiIn the global race to provide advanced lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicles, the United States is off to a fast start. We found 119 sites spread out across 27 states, all playing key roles across the value chain.
Case Study: A123 Systems - Local Markets and Competitiveness, A Value Chain Analysis
October 2010 | Durham, NC | Gary Gereffi, Tali Trigg, Marcy LoweAfter years of manufacturing in China, advanced battery maker A123 Systems is also aggressively adding jobs in the United States, responding to federal incentives and a promising U.S. market for electric vehicle batteries.
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Case Study: Cree, Inc. - Local Markets and Global Competitiveness, A Value Chain Analysis
October 2010 | Durham, NC | Gary Gereffi, Ghada Ahmed, Marcy LoweCree is adding jobs in the United States, but also in China--where the main attraction is not low-cost labor, but rather a large market for LED lighting products.
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Agricultural Value Chains in the Mexicali Valley of Mexico
September 2010 | Durham, NC | Lukas Brun, Ajmal Abdulsamad, Christpher Guertsen, Gary GereffiThis study identifies the producers and buyers of the major crops grown in the Mexicali Valley – cotton, wheat, alfalfa, asparagus, and green onions. The report also reviews the public commitments made by these economic actors to sustainable environmental practices in their corporate sustainability reports.
Engineering Services in the Americas
July 2010 | Durham, NC | Karina Fernandez-Stark, Penny Bamber, Gary GereffiDespite the 2008-2009 economic crisis, countries across Latin America continue to grow rapidly, driven by commodity booms and the growth of mining, petroleum and forestry sectors. Combined with the need for massive scale infrastructure development across these developing countries, the demand for engineering services in the Americas is booming. This report examines how this demand may be met regionally by analyzing the supply and quality and cost of engineers in five key countries: Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Peru and the United States.
The Global Apparel Value Chain, Trade And The Crisis : Challenges And Opportunities For Developing Countries
June 2010 | Gary Gereffi, Stacey FrederickThis paper analyzes the recent evolution and impact of the global economic crisis on the apparel industry. This paper was commissioned by the World Bank.
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U.S. Manufacture of Rail Vehicles for Intercity Passenger Rail and Urban Transit
June 2010 | Durham, NC | Marcy Lowe, Saori Tokuoka, Kristen Dubay, Gary GereffiThe United States seems poised to ramp up its investments in passenger and transit rail. Will the required rail vehicles and components be manufactured in the United States? We map out 249 U.S. manufacturing locations, describe the current value chain, identify gaps in domestic capabilities, and note priorities for the future of the industry.
The Offshore Services Value Chain: Developing Countries and the Crisis
April 2010 | Gary Gereffi, Karina Fernandez-StarkThis paper analyzes the recent evolution and impact of the global economic crisis on the offshore services industry. This paper was commissioned by the World Bank.
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Workforce Development in Chile's Offshore Services Value Chain
March 2010 | Durham, NC | Karina Fernandez-Stark, Penny Bamber, Gary GereffiThis report is based on interviews with CEOs, Country Managers, HR executives and employees of 15 key companies in the offshore services sector in Chile. This report was commissioned by the Chilean Agency for Economic Development (CORFO).
The Offshore Services Global Value Chain
March 2010 | Durham, NC | Gary Gereffi, Karina Fernandez-StarkThis report analyzes the evolving offshore services industry employing the Global Value Chain framework. Offshore services emerged as a dynamic global sector in the past two decades. Companies in their search for efficiencies and economies of scale began offshoring and outsourcing a variety of corporate functions. This report was commissioned by the Chilean Agency for Economic Development (CORFO).
Chile's Offshore Services Value Chain
March 2010 | Durham, NC | Karina Fernandez-Stark, Penny Bamber, Gary GereffiThis report presents the Chilean offshore services industry value chain. The authors provide in- depth analysis of the ITO, BPO and KPO segments, including both the current level of development and challenges for future growth. This report was commissioned by the Chilean Agency for Economic Development (CORFO).
A Value Chain Analysis of Wild-Caught Shrimp in Sinaloa, Mexico
March 2010 | Durham, NC | Kristen Dubay, Saori Tokuoka, Gary GereffiThis report illustrates the value chain of wild-caught shrimp landed in Sinaloa, Mexico and the environmental implications of fishing practices in the region. It highlights opportunities to link U.S. market interest for this product with development of environmentally sustainable fishing practices in the Gulf of California.
U.S. Adoption of High-Efficiency Motors and Drives: Lessons Learned
February 2010 | Durham, NC | Marcy Lowe, Ghada Ahmed, Saori TokuokaMotor systems used by manufacturing industries play a large role in national energy profiles. In the United States, industrial motor systems account for about 17% of total electricity use. U.S. adoption of more efficient motors and motor systems could save an estimated 62-104 billion kilowatt hours of electricity annually, at a cost savings of $3-5 billion.
The Development and Diffusion of Powder Coatings in the United States and Europe
February 2010 | Durham, NC | Lukas Brun, Ruggero Golini, Gary GereffiPowder coatings eliminate VOCs released during industrial coating processes and offer additional environmental and economic benefits over petroleum-based coatings. The report traces the history of powder coatings in the United States and Europe, identifies the powder coating value chain structure, the ability of key players to affect the industry, and some challenges of the Chinese powder coating market.
Powder Coatings Report ECJ Article Powder Coating Magazine Technical Appendix
The Offshore Services Industry: A New Opportunity for Latin America
December 2009 | Gary Gereffi, Mario Castillo, Karina Fernandez-StarkThe Center prepared a Policy Brief for the Inter-American Development Bank in which the offshore services industry is presented as a new opportunity for Latin America. The Center was invited to present the main findings of the Policy Brief in the annual REDIBERO meeting, with the title, "La Promoción del Comercio y la Inversión en Iberoamérica ¿Podemos avanzar hacia la promoción regional?"
IADB Policy Brief Presentation (in Spanish)
Public Transit Buses: Chapter 12
October 2009 | Durham, NC | Marcy Lowe, Bengu Aytekin, Gary GereffiBuses represent 25,000 to 33,000 domestic jobs, many overlapping with the heavy truck industry. U.S. firms are leading the development of hybrid, all-electric and other "green" buses--the future of the industry.
Wind Power: Chapter 11
September 2009 | Durham, NC | Gloria Ayee, Marcy Lowe, Gary GereffiU.S. employment in wind power is estimated at 85,000 jobs and growing quickly, with opportunities to employ workers and capacity from other industries like automotive and aerospace.
Residential Re-Insulation: Chapter 10
August 2010 | Durham, NC | Kristen Dubay, Gary GereffiWith 46 million underinsulated homes in the United States, an expanding re-insulation market could save energy and create U.S. jobs for contractors, insulation installers, distributors, manufacturers, and material suppliers. This report is part of the Manufacturing Climate Solutions series.Posted: August 6, 2009.
Hybrid Drivetrains for Medium- and Heavy-Duty Trucks: Chapter 9
June 2009 | Durham, NC | Marcy Lowe, Gloria Ayee, Gary GereffiThe United States is well positioned to take the lead in hybrid commercial trucks, a new, fast- growing market that promises future U.S. jobs in truck manufacturing, advanced energy storage, electronics, and software. This report is part of the Manufacturing Climate Solutions series.
Carbon Capture and Storage: Chapter 8
May 2009 | Durham, NC | Kristen Dubay, Gary Gereffi, Lukas BrunChapter 8 of the Manufacturing Climate Solutions report focuses on carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies. These technologies will allow the U.S. to continue using fossil fuel for power generation while also achieving national goals to reduce CO2 emissions. These billion dollar projects also present huge U.S.-based employment opportunities in fields ranging from R&D to manufacturing and construction.
Recycling Industrial Waste Energy: Chapter 7
February 2009 | Durham, NC | Marcy Lowe, Gary GereffiMany industrial processes discard exhaust heat, combustible gases, and other "waste" energy. These highly recoverable resources can be harnessed to generate electricity, thus saving energy costs, reducing CO2 emissions, creating new jobs, and protecting existing jobs by increasing productivity and competitiveness.
Heat Pump Water Heaters: Chapter 6
February 2009 | Durham, NC | Kristen Dubay, Gloria Ayee, Gary GereffiCurrent residential heat pump water heater products are add-on units used in conjunction with conventional storage tanks and they are produced by a handful of very small U.S. companies. The recent introduction of ENERGY STAR water heater criteria appears to be incentivizing some larger appliance manufacturers to develop new heat pump water heater products that will be more widely available. If consumer interest in heat pump water heaters increases, the market would need to scale up significantly to meet greater demands, opening greater opportunities for U.S. component manufacturing in the value chain.
A Value Chain Analysis of the U.S. Beef & Dairy Industries
February 2009 | Durham, NC | Marcy Lowe, Gary GereffiLivestock farms are a major source of greenhouse gases. Certain practices in feeding and manure management can reduce these and other environmental impacts, but how do you encourage 967,440 U.S. farms, ranches and feedlots to adopt these best practices? We find that the strongest leverage for effecting such change lies in the downstream players in the value chain.
Manufacturing Climate Solutions: Carbon-Reducing Technologies and U.S. Jobs (Chapters 1-5)
November 2008 | Durham, NC | Gary Gereffi, Kristen Dubay, Marcy LoweThe Manufacturing Climate Solutions report series looks at the linkages between low-carbon technologies and U.S. jobs. In this initial report released in November 2008, Chapters 1-5 look at five technologies: LED lighting, high-performance windows, auxiliary power units for trucks, concentrating solar power, and Super Soil Systems.
Super Soil Systems: Chapter 5
November 2008 | Durham, NC | Gary Gereffi, Marcy LoweSuper Soil is not yet commercially available, but it is an example of a technology that could potentially be widely adopted. The adoption of this or similar technologies would involve manufacturing jobs producing large tanks. Additional manufacturing jobs would be needed to make the equipment, along with the associated requirements for steel, glass, concrete, and other materials, and construction jobs to build the facility. This new technology for treating hog waste could allow the United States to become a global market leader in a sector where, until now, no adequate alternative has been available.
Concentrating Solar Power: Chapter 4
November 2008 | Durham, NC | Gary Gereffi, Kristen DubayConcentrating solar power (CSP) represents a clean, powerful, endless, and reliable source of energy with the capacity to entirely satisfy the present and future electricity needs in the U.S. The new market for concentrating solar power plants has potential to create numerous U.S. manufacturing and construction jobs as U.S. companies grow and foreign firms come to the United States.
Auxiliary Power Units for Trucks: Chapter 3
November 2008 | Durham, NC | Gary Gereffi, Kristen DubayIntegration of auxiliary power units into long-haul truck manufacturing in the near future will likely increase penetration rates dramatically, with a corresponding boost to manufacturing. Expanded production of APUs would create economic opportunity at all stages of the value chain by increasing purchases from material and component suppliers. Additional value chain opportunities will likely come when APU technology is integrated as a component in tractor manufacturing rather than being an aftermarket product.
High-Performance Windows: Chapter 2
November 2008 | Durham, NC | Gary Gereffi, Kristen DubayHigh performance window technology is well developed, and widespread use of these more efficient windows is leading to demand for even better performance. The U.S. industry faces new, more stringent efficiency criteria that may spur manufacturers to retool production lines and further innovate. Over the course of criteria changes, jobs may have to develop more efficient products. The ability of companies to respond to criteria changes may determine which companies will benefit and which will struggle to compete.
LED Lighting: Chapter 1
November 2008 | Durham, NC | Gary Gereffi, Marcy LoweLight-emitting diodes (LEDs) are a semiconductor technology whose application to general-purpose lighting is rapidly growing, with significant potential for energy savings. The market for general-purpose LED lighting is currently very small, but it is growing rapidly as the technology improves and costs go down. Leading U.S. manufacturers find it crucial to ensure high quality and to protect their innovations--two good reasons to keep the manufacturing close to home.
A Value Chain Analysis of the U.S. Pork Industry
October 2008 | Durham, NC | Marcy Lowe, Gary GereffiOver-use of antibiotics in hog production poses the risk of creating antibiotic-resistant bacteria, seriously threatening human health. Reducing antibiotic use, however, poses challenges to hog farmers. By analyzing the value chain, we can better understand the industry’s dynamics, preparing the way for further work to find ways of protecting public health that also make good business sense.
View EDF Pork Industry Report
A Value Chain Analysis of Selected California Crops
July 2008 | Durham, NC | Marcy Lowe, Gary GereffiCalifornia is the most diversified agricultural economy in the world, generating more agricultural value than many countries. In the value chains for two selected crops—grain corn and processed tomatoes—we identify the players positioned to encourage environmental best practices.
View EDF California Crops Report View EDF California Crops Report Appendix A and B
An Analysis of the U.S. Real Estate Value Chain
April 2008 | Durham, NC | Marcy Lowe, Gary GereffiEDF is known for partnering with lead firms to find green solutions that make good business sense. Recognizing that buildings account for 40% of U.S. energy consumption, EDF asked CGGC to analyze the U.S. real estate industry and find key firms that are well-positioned to find innovative business practices to reduce building energy use. Among the report's key findings:
(1) In the finance segment of the value chain, there is greater leverage on the equity side than on the debt side. In other words, when it comes to working with building owners and developers, investors have greater influence than lenders
(2) The greatest energy-saving potential in the value chain lies in a) companies that own and operate real estate, and b) firms that either invest in them or manage property for them.
View EDF Real Estate Report View EDF Real Estate Report Appendices