Research Reports

Nicaragua and the Apparel Value Chain in the Americas

March 18, 2014   |   Durham, NC   |   Stacey Frederick, Jennifer Bair, Gary Gereffi
This report explores how U.S. regional textile and apparel manufacturers are linked to the U.S. industry through textile exports and apparel imports and the the role of trade legislation in the past, present and future of the industry in Nicaragua and the United States.
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OECD Background Paper: Capturing the Gains in Africa, Making the Most of Global Value Chain Participation

February 2014   |   Goger, Annelies, Andrew Hull, Stephanie Barrientos, Gary Gereffi and Shane Godfrey
This report was commissioned as a background paper for the annual OECD publication, “Africa Economic Outlook (AEO)” 2014. It provides a critical overview of the Capturing the Gains (CTG) research findings from Africa across three industries: horticulture, apparel and tourism. Specific emphasis is placed on identifying opportunities and challenges for economic and social upgrading within African GVCs so that workers and small producers can capture a fairer share of the gains from trade and economic growth. The report also offers sector specific GVC policy recommendations for African policy makers.
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Connecting Local Producers in Developing Countries to Regional and Global Value Chains

December 3, 2013   |   Bamber, Penny, Karina Fernandez-Stark, Gary Gereffi, and Andrew Guinn
This report, commissioned by the Trade and Agriculture Directorate of the OECD, analyzes the specific factors that affect the competitiveness of developing countries in regional and global value chains (GVCs), and how these factors differ across four major economic sectors: agriculture, extractive industries, manufacturing and offshore services. The analysis highlights that in order to participate gainfully in GVCs, developing countries must adopt industry-specific policy frameworks that reflect the changing reality of global business.
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The Economic Impact of the High Point Market

October 19, 2013   |   High Point, NC   |   North Carolina
   |   Lukas Brun & Bill Lester
The Center on Globalization, Governance & Competitiveness at Duke University was engaged by the High Point Market Authority (HPMA) to conduct a comprehensive economic and fiscal impact of the High Point Market located in High Point, NC. The Market, conducted bi-annually, is the largest home furnishings market in the world and attracts over 75,000 visitors each market session who descend on High Point and its environs to buy, sell and market a wide variety of furniture, accessories, and design services. Beyond attracting a large number of visitors from outside the state, the Market serves a critical function for the broader furnishings industry and is a key node in the overall furniture industry’s value chain. In particular, it is widely known by local stakeholders that a large portion of the sales contacts and transactions for local manufacturing companies are initiated and negotiated at the Market.
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Costa Rica in Global Value Chains: An Upgrading Analysis

August 8, 2013   |   Costa Rica
   |   Gary Gereffi, Penny Bamber, Stacey Frederick, Karina Fernandez-Stark
This introductory chapter outlines the analytical framework employed for the study, examines Costa Rica's rapid shift from agricultural exports to high tech exports and provides an introduction to relevant elements of Costa Rica's investment, trade and education policies.
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Brazilian Manufacturing in International Perspective: A Global Value Chain Analysis of Brazil's Aerospace, Medical Devices, and Electronics Industries

September, 2013   |   Brazil
   |   Gary Gereffi, Andrew Guinn, Ezequiel Zylberberg
Duke CGGC and MIT's Industrial Performance Center conducted a year-long study of the Brazil's position in the aerospace, medical devices and electronics global value chains. This report, sponsored by the Confederação Nacional da Indústria in Brazil, presents key findings from the research and provides recommendations to improve Brazilian industrial policy.
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Brazilian Manufacturing in International Perspective: A Global Value Chain Analysis of Brazil's Aerospace, Medical Devices, and Electronics Industries

September, 2013   |   Brazil
   |   Gary Gereffi, Andrew Guinn, Ezequiel Zylberberg
Duke CGGC and MIT's Industrial Performance Center conducted a year-long study of the Brazil's position in the aerospace, medical devices and electronics global value chains. This report, sponsored by the Confederação Nacional da Indústria in Brazil, presents key findings from the research and provides recommendations to improve Brazilian industrial policy.
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Costa Rica in Global Value Chains: An Upgrading Analysis

August 8, 2013   |   Costa Rica
   |   Gary Gereffi, Penny Bamber, Stacey Frederick, Karina Fernandez-Stark
This introductory chapter outlines the analytical framework employed for the study, examines Costa Rica's rapid shift from agricultural exports to high tech exports and provides an introduction to relevant elements of Costa Rica's investment, trade and education policies.
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Costa Rica in the Medical Devices Global Value Chain: Opportunities for Upgrading

August 8, 2013   |   Costa Rica
   |   Penny Bamber, Gary Gereffi, Contributing CGGC Researchers: Stacey Frederick
Covering a broad spectrum of products from inexpensive bandages, to technology-intensive hearing aids and tissue heart valves, to high-cost items such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) machines, the medical devices sector offers high growth potential. The report uses the GVC framework to analyze Costa Rica´s position and potential for upgrading in this industry.
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Costa Rica in the Electronics Global Value Chain: Opportunities for Upgrading

August 8, 2013   |   Costa Rica
   |   Stacey Frederick, Gary Gereffi
The electronics industry encompasses a vast array of products that feed into markets ranging from consumer products to high-end medical equipment. This report uses the GVC framework to illustrate opportunities for Costa Rica's established electronic component sector to capitalize on other complementary growth markets in the country including medical devices, automotive and aerospace.
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Costa Rica in the Aerospace Global Value Chain: Opportunities for Entry & Upgrading

August 8, 2013   |   Costa Rica
   |   Penny Bamber, Gary Gereffi, Contributing CGGC Researchers: Stacey Frederick and Andrew Guinn
The global aerospace sector is a challenging industry to enter, yet several developing countries have been able to make significant in-roads. This report uses the global value chain (GVC) framework to understand the complexity of the industry and the numerous subsystems of which it is composed in order to provide insight on entry strategies.
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Costa Rica in the Offshore Services Global Value Chain: Opportunities for Upgrading

August 8, 2013   |   Costa Rica
   |   Karina Fernandez-Stark, Penny Bamber, Gary Gereffi
Costa Rica has been successful in attracting some of the top companies in the offshore services industry to establish operations within the country, particularly in BPO operations and other shared services. This study uses the GVC framework to analyze the country's potential for further upgrading and consolidating its position in the industry.
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Wheat Value Chains and Food Security in the Middle East and North Africa Region

August, 2013   |   Middle East and North Africa
   |   Ghada Ahmed, Danny Hamrick, Andrew Guinn, Ajmal Abdulsamad, Gary Gereffi
This report focuses on the wheat global value chain in the energy-exporting countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, with particular emphasis on Egypt, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Syria and the UAE. It is funded by a grant to Duke from the US Department of Defense's MINERVA Initiative.
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US Coal and the Technology Innovation Frontier: What role does coal play in our energy future?

February 8, 2013   |   Durham, NC   |   Ghada Ahmed, Ajmal Abdulsamad, Gary Gereffi
The U.S. coal industry is coping with declining consumption as the nation burns less coal to generate electricity. The electric power sector drives coal demand and consumes over 90% of coal production. The coal industry is facing a number of challenges that include increasing production costs and competition from natural gas in the electric power market. The decreasing share of coal in power generation implies that the future of coal depends on technologies that change the way we manage and use coal such as carbon capture and utilization, coal gasification and coal liquefaction technologies.
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Global Value Chains, Economic Upgrading and Gender

January 31, 2013   |   Durham, NC   |   Ghada Ahmed, Penny Bamber, Karina Fernandez-Stark and Michelle Christian, edited by Cornelia Staritz and José Guilherme Reis
Case Studies of the Horticulture, Tourism, and Call Center Industries

This book provides a gendered analysis of the horticulture, tourism, and call center global value chains (GVCs) based on a survey of the literature and case studies carried out in Honduras, Kenya, and the Arab Republic of Egypt.
The studies show that GVCs and their upgrading dynamics have important gender dimensions, and that integration and upgrading are influenced by, and have an impact on, gender relations.
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The NSPS Shipbuilding Value Chains

January 24, 2013   |   Durham, NC   |   USA
   |   Gary Gereffi, Lukas Brun, Shawn Stokes, Andrew Guinn
The report analyzes the anatomy of the ships procured under Canada’s National Shipbuilding Procurement Strategy (NSPS), identifies opportunities for companies to participate in their construction and maintenance, and makes recommendations to government about supporting Nova Scotia companies, moving into higher value-added activities, and developing the regional value chain.
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Inclusion of Small- and Medium-Sized Producers in High-Value Agro-Food Value Chains

December 20, 2012   |   Durham, NC   |   Latin America, USA
   |   Karina Fernandez-Stark, Penny Bamber, Gary Gereffi
This paper uses the global value chain methodology to analyze Inter-American Development Bank Multilateral Investment Fund (IDB-MIF) initiatives in Latin America that aim to include high-value agriculture small producers in the national, regional and global chains. Based on extensive primary and secondary research, we propose a holistic model for these interventions.
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Assessment of Five High-Value Agriculture Inclusive Business Projects Sponsored by the Inter- American Development Bank in Latin America

December 20, 2012   |   Durham, NC   |   Latin America, USA
   |   Karina Fernandez-Stark, Penny Bamber
This paper is a summary of five IDB-MIF projects that aimed to include small- and medium-sized producers in high-value agriculture value chains. The objective of this paper is to provide a set of lessons learned to design and implement efficient, effective and sustainable projects in the future.
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Basic Principles and Guidelines for Impactful and Sustainable Inclusive Business Interventions in High-Value Agro-Food Value Chains

December 20, 2012   |   Durham, NC   |   Latin America, USA
   |   Karina Fernandez-Stark, Penny Bamber
The objective of this report is to inform IDB-MIF officers and management how global value chain interventions can be more effectively designed, monitored and evaluated to ensure sustainable inclusion of small- and medium-sized producers in high-value agricultural chains.
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OECD Background Paper: Upgrading in Global Value Chains: Addressing the Skills Challenge in Developing Countries

September 26, 2012   |   Durham, NC   |   USA
   |   Karina Fernandez-Stark, Penny Bamber, Gary Gereffi
This report was commissioned by OECD as a background paper for the annual OECD publication, “Perspectives of Development” 2013. This report examines the role of workforce development using the GVC methodology in four industries: apparel, fruit and vegetables, offshore services and tourism in 19 developing countries. The report presents a typology for policy recommendations to enhance the capabilities of the labor force to support GVC upgrading.
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Case: Supporting the Competitiveness of Central American Coffee

July 5, 2012   |   Durham, NC   |   USA, Central America
   |   Karina Fernandez-Stark, Penny Bamber
After the coffee crisis at the turn of the century, a selected group of small and medium coffee producers in five Central American countries received technical assistance to produce higher value specialty coffee and help to establish market linkages with global buyers.

Caso: Apoyando la Competitividad del Café Centroamericano

Después de la crisis del café ocurrida a principios de siglo, un grupo selecto de pequeños y medianos productores de café de 5 países de Centroamérica recibió asistencia técnica para producir café de especialidad y contactos con compradores globales.
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Case: Development of Micro and Small Rural Apicultural Producers in Nicaragua & Honduras

July 5, 2012   |   Durham, NC   |   USA, Nicaragua, Honduras
   |   Karina Fernandez-Stark, Penny Bamber
Micro- and small honey producers were helped to enter into the domestic (Honduras) and global (Nicaragua) value chains.

Caso: Desarrollo de Micro y Pequeños Productores Apícolas en Nicaragua y Honduras

Micro y pequeños productores de miel fueron apoyados para insertarse en la cadena local de la miel (Honduras) y en la cadena global de la miel (Nicaragua).
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Case: Conversion to Organic Cacao Cultivation in Peru

July 5, 2012   |   Durham, NC   |   USA, Tingo María, Perú,
   |   Penny Bamber, Karina Fernandez-Stark
Small producers, members of a large, established coffee and cocoa cooperative in Tingo María, Perú, converted to certified organic production of cocoa.

Caso: Conversión hacia un Cultivo Orgánico de Cacao en Perú

Pequeños productores de cacao y café, miembros de la Cooperativa Industrial Naranjillo (COOPAIN), una cooperativa grande y consolidada en Tingo María, Perú, se han convertido en productores de café orgánico certificado.
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Case: Strengthening the Competitiveness of Organic Producers in Andean Microwatersheds

July 5, 2012   |   Durham, NC   |   USA, Huánuco, Peru
   |   Karina Fernandez-Stark, Penny Bamber
Small fruit and vegetables producers in Huánuco, Peru were supported to form a consortium to sell their organic produce in supermarkets in Lima.

Caso: Fortaleciendo la Competitividad de Productores Orgánicos en Microcuencas Andinas

Pequeños productores de frutas y verduras en Huánuco, Perú fueron apoyados para formar un consorcio con el fin de vender su producción orgánica en los supermercados de Lima.
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Case: Strengthening the Competitiveness of the Stevia Value Chain in Paraguay

July 5, 2012   |   Durham, NC   |   USA, Paraguay
   |   Penny Bamber, Karina Fernandez-Stark
Small stevia producers in Paraguay were helped to improve the production and quality of stevia to raise incomes and expand the supply of stevia.

Caso: Fortaleciendo la Competitividad en la Cadena de Valor de Stevia en Paraguay

Pequeños productores de stevia recibieron ayuda para mejorar la producción y calidad de la stevia en Paraguay con el fin de expandir la oferta del producto en mercados internacionales y aumentar sus ingresos.
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Case: The Competitiveness of Small Organic Cocoa Producers of the National Confederation of Dominican Cocoa Producers

July 5, 2012   |   Durham, NC   |   USA, Dominican Republic
   |   Penny Bamber, Karina Fernandez-Stark
Small organic cocoa producers in the Dominican Republic improve their competitiveness by increasing cultivation productivity.

Caso: Competitividad de Pequeños Productores de Cacao Orgánico de la Confederación Nacional de Cacaocultores Dominicanos (Conacado)

Pequeños productores de cacao orgánico en República Dominicana mejoraron su competitividad mediante el incremento de la productividad de las plantaciones.
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Geosynthetics: Coastal Management Applications in the Gulf

July 21, 2012   |   Durham, NC   |   Shawn Stokes, Susan Wunderink, Marcy Lowe, and Gary Gereffi
Coastal management projects to restore the Gulf Coast nearly all use geosynthetics-polymer-based materials that can improve structure performance, reduce project time and cost, and lessen environmental impact. This study analyzes 84 firms linked to geosynthetics and coastal management, providing jobs in the five Gulf Coast states and 31 others.
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U.S. Bus Rapid Transit

July 10, 2012   |   Durham, NC   |   Marcy Lowe, Monica La
As more U.S. cities consider adopting Bus Rapid Transit, CGGC researchers offer a new online tool to help decision-makers understand the value chain. A new report with interactive database analyzes the value chain of 390 firms that provide vehicles, technology, and services for high-quality BRT.
View Report  Interactive Database  Meeting Proceedings

Restoring Gulf Oyster Reefs: Opportunities for Innovation

June 5, 2012   |   Durham, NC   |   Shawn Stokes, Susan Wunderink, Marcy Lowe, Gary Gereffi
Several natural and manmade stressors are destroying Gulf Coast oyster reefs, jeopardizing a resource that protects the shore, filters water, and increases marine fisheries production. Restoring oyster reefs will maintain these valuable ecosystem services, and support a network of 132 innovative small and medium sized businesses across 22 states.
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Accessing Ocean Technology Value Chains: a Guide for the Canadian Trade Commissioner Service

April 12, 2012   |   Durham, NC   |   Lukas Brun, Joonkoo Lee, Gary Gereffi
Increasing access of Canada's small and medium-sized enterprises to ocean technology value chains.
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Nova Scotia's Ocean Technologies

March 5, 2012   |   Durham, NC   |   Gary Gereffi, Lukas Brun, Joonkoon Lee, and Mary Turnipseed
Increasing the competitiveness of the ocean technology sector in Nova Scotia.
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Manual: Desarrollo Económico Local y Cadenas Globales de Valor

December, 2011   |   Durham, NC   |   USA
   |   Karina Fernández-Stark, Gary Gereffi
Este manual tiene por objeto informar a los equipos de investigación del Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo en América Latina acerca de una metodología que permite analizar casos de Desarrollo Económico Local (DEL). En este instructivo se ha incluido el marco tradicional de los estudios DEL y, además, se ha incorporado la metodología de las cadenas globales de valor con el fin de analizar cómo los sectores productivos están colaborando en el desarrollo económico local y, a la vez, cómo los micro, pequeños y medianos empresarios están incluidos en la cadena.
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Restoring the Gulf Coast: New Markets for Established Firms

December 5, 2011   |   Durham, NC   |   Marcy Lowe, Shawn Stokes, Gary Gereffi
Natural and human activities have damaged the Gulf Coast, threatening a valuable ecosystem vital to several billion-dollar industries such as seafood and tourism. Restoring the Gulf Coast can protect these assets while creating much-needed U.S. jobs, by engaging at least 140 firms across nearly 400 locations.
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Skills for Upgrading: Workforce Development and Global Value Chains in Developing Countries

November 15, 2011   |   Durham, NC   |   Gary Gereffi, Karina Fernandez-Stark, Phil Psilos
This research project examines workforce development strategies in developing countries in the context of the shifting upgrading dynamics of global value chains. Funded by RTI International and carried out by Duke CGGC researchers in collaboration with RTI, this research addresses policymakers, donors and development practitioners to improve our understanding of how workforce development strategies can enhance the upgrading efforts and competitiveness of developing countries in global industries.
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Workforce Development in the Global Economy: Linking Skills and Capabilities

November 15, 2011   |   Durham, NC   |   Phil Psilos, Gary Gereffi
Value chain practice has become widely utilized in enterprise and industry development in recent years, yet there is almost no literature on workforce development in the context of what we now know about the dynamic upgrading trajectories of countries in global value chains. This introductory chapter highlights the importance of adopting a complementary GVC approach to workforce development to improve the participation and competitiveness of developing countries in the global economy.
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The Fruit and Vegetables Global Value Chain: Economic Upgrading and Workforce Development

November 15, 2011   |   Durham, NC   |   Karina Fernandez-Stark, Penny Bamber, Gary Gereffi, Contributing CGGC Researchers: Ghada Ahmed, Shelli Jo Heil, RTI Researcher Christopher Root
Shows the shift of fruit and vegetable preparation from rural households to the urban kitchen, and highlights the new skills and global standards required of workers and suppliers in developing countries to meet the needs of global supermarkets.
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The Apparel Global Value Chain: Economic Upgrading and Workforce Development

November 15, 2011   |   Durham, NC   |   Karina Fernandez-Stark, Stacey Frederick, Gary Gereffi, Contributing CGGC Researchers: Penny Bamber, Ghada Ahmed
Export-processing zones in low-cost countries have become synonymous with globalization, but what is the next step for developing countries in apparel? Outlines the skills required to turn assembly lines into one-stop production centers that include design, logistics and brands.
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The Offshore Services Global Value Chain: Economic Upgrading and Workforce Development

November 15, 2011   |   Durham, NC   |   Karina Fernandez-Stark, Penny Bamber, Gary Gereffi
Developing countries around the world are competing to become the next Bangalore, but they need to take various steps to ensure their human capital can meet the exacting demands and professional certifications required by developed world clients.
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The Tourism Global Value Chain: Economic Upgrading and Workforce Development

November 15, 2011   |   Durham, NC   |   Michelle Christian, Karina Fernandez-Stark, Ghada Ahmed, Gary Gereffi
Global tourists are traveling further, faster and more frequently than ever before. This report indicates how developing countries can prepare their tourism workforce to provide the high levels of customer service expected by today’s sophisticated traveler.
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Meeting the Upgrading Challenge: Dynamic Workforces for Diversified Economies

November 15, 2011   |   Durham, NC   |   Karina Fernandez-Stark, Penny Bamber, Gary Gereffi, Phil Psilos, Joe DeStefano
This final chapter summarizes the key findings of the "Skills for Upgrading" research project in four thematic areas: upgrading, workforce skills, institutions and stakeholders, and global standards. We also offer a list of recommendations regarding workforce development strategies for donors and development practitioners to best prepare the workforce in developing countries to respond to the growing demands of global industries.
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Global Value Chain Analysis: A Primer

May 31, 2011   |   Durham, NC   |   Gary Gereffi, Karina Fernandez-Stark
The global economy is increasingly structured around global value chains (GVCs) that account for a rising share of international trade, global GDP and employment. The evolution of GVCs in sectors as diverse as commodities, apparel, electronics, tourism and business service outsourcing has significant implications in terms of global trade, production and employment and how developing country firms, producers and workers are integrated in the global economy. GVCs link firms, workers and consumers around the world and often provide a stepping stone for firms and workers in developing countries to integrate into the global economy.
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Smart Grid: Core Firms in the Research Triangle Region, NC

May 24, 2011   |   Durham, NC   |   Marcy Lowe
The Research Triangle is a smart grid hotspot, with specialized R&D centers, supportive government policies, and roughly 60 core firms whose capabilities stretch across the entire value chain.
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U.S. Smart Grid: Finding New Ways to Cut Carbon and Create Jobs

April 19, 2011   |   Durham, NC   |   Marcy Lowe, Hua Fan, Gary Gereffi, Contributing CGGC researcher: Ghada Ahmed
Turning the electric power system into an "energy internet" can reduce CO2 emissions, stimulate technology innovation, expand the use of renewable energy, and create tens of thousands of U.S. jobs.
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Capturing the Energy Efficiency Opportunity: Lessons from EDF Climate Corps

March 1, 2011   |   Durham, NC   |   Lukas Brun
From 2008 to 2010, more than 65 companies and over 80 select MBA fellows have worked together through EDF’s Climate Corps Program to identify opportunities for energy efficiency investments that save money and reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
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The Multiple Pathways to Industrial Energy Efficiency: A Systems and Value Chain Approach

February 15, 2011   |   Durham, NC   |   Lukas Brun
In most companies, significant opportunities exist to improve energy efficiency, and many of them pay for themselves. However, organizational and financial barriers often prevent companies from capturing these savings. Closing this “efficiency gap” can have a big payoff for companies and society as a whole. To better understand these barriers to efficiency and potential strategies to overcome them, the report examines why and how product manufacturers adopt energy-efficiency improvements in their internal operations and supply chains.
View Report  Appendix

Strengthening Nicaragua's Position in the Textile-Apparel Value Chain: Upgrading in the Context of the CAFTA-DR Region

December 20, 2010   |   Durham, NC   |   Gary Gereffi, Jennifer Bair
This study examines the competitiveness of the textile-apparel sector in Nicaragua, with the objective of producing a diagnosis of the textile – apparel industry in Nicaragua and the United States, an assessment of the opportunities and obstacles to upgrading, and concrete proposals for steps to be taken in the short and medium term.
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Lithium-ion Batteries for Electric Vehicles: The U.S. Value Chain

October 5, 2010   |   Durham, NC   |   Marcy Lowe, Saori Tokuoka, Tali Trigg, Gary Gereffi
In the global race to provide advanced lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicles, the United States is off to a fast start. We found 119 sites spread out across 27 states, all playing key roles across the value chain.
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Case Study: A123 Systems - Local Markets and Competitiveness, A Value Chain Analysis

October 22, 2010   |   Durham, NC   |   Gary Gereffi, Tali Trigg, Marcy Lowe
After years of manufacturing in China, advanced battery maker A123 Systems is also aggressively adding jobs in the United States, responding to federal incentives and a promising U.S. market for electric vehicle batteries.
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Case Study: Cree, Inc. - Local Markets and Global Competitiveness, A Value Chain Analysis

October 22, 2010   |   Durham, NC   |   Gary Gereffi, Ghada Ahmed, Marcy Lowe
Cree is adding jobs in the United States, but also in China--where the main attraction is not low-cost labor, but rather a large market for LED lighting products.
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Agricultural Value Chains in the Mexicali Valley of Mexico

September 15, 2010   |   Durham, NC   |   Lukas Brun
This study identifies the producers and buyers of the major crops grown in the Mexicali Valley – cotton, wheat, alfalfa, asparagus, and green onions. The report also reviews the public commitments made by these economic actors to sustainable environmental practices in their corporate sustainability reports.
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The Marketing and Distribution of Fast Food

September 3, 2010   |   Durham, NC
This chapter seeks to advance the multilevel approach to studying childhood obesity by focusing on the "macro" level of corporations in the global economy. We use a global value chains (GVC) framework to explain how the structure of food and agricultural value chains, with an emphasis on the fast-food segment, affects individual consumption choices.
Chapter

Engineering Services in the Americas

July 1, 2010   |   Durham, NC   |   Karina Fernandez-Stark, Penny Bamber, Gary Gereffi
Despite the 2008-2009 economic crisis, countries across Latin America continue to grow rapidly, driven by commodity booms and the growth of mining, petroleum and forestry sectors. Combined with the need for massive scale infrastructure development across these developing countries, the demand for engineering services in the Americas is booming. This report examines how this demand may be met regionally by analyzing the supply and quality and cost of engineers in five key countries: Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Peru and the United States.
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U.S. Manufacture of Rail Vehicles for Intercity Passenger Rail and Urban Transit

June 24, 2010   |   Durham, NC   |   Marcy Lowe, Saori Tokuoka, Kristen Dubay, Gary Gereffi
The United States seems poised to ramp up its investments in passenger and transit rail. Will the required rail vehicles and components be manufactured in the United States? We map out 249 U.S. manufacturing locations, describe the current value chain, identify gaps in domestic capabilities, and note priorities for the future of the industry.
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The Offshore Services Value Chain: Developing Countries and the Crisis

April 2010
This paper analyzes the recent evolution and impact of the global economic crisis on the offshore services industry. This paper was commissioned by the World Bank.
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The Offshore Services Industry: A New Opportunity for Latin America

April 2010   |   Gary Gereffi, Mario Castillo, Karina Fernandez-Stark
The Center prepared a Policy Brief for the Inter-American Development Bank in which the offshore services industry is presented as a new opportunity for Latin America. The Center was invited to present the main findings of the Policy Brief in the annual REDIBERO meeting, with the title, "La Promoción del Comercio y la Inversión en Iberoamérica ¿Podemos avanzar hacia la promoción regional?"
IADB Policy Brief  Presentation (in Spanish)

Workforce Development in Chile's Offshore Services Value Chain

March 15, 2010   |   Durham, NC   |   CGGC, Duke University
   |   Karina Fernandez-Stark, Penny Bamber, Gary Gereffi
This report is based on interviews with CEOs, Country Managers, HR executives and employees of 15 key companies in the offshore services sector in Chile. This report was commissioned by the Chilean Agency for Economic Development (CORFO).
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The Offshore Services Global Value Chain

March 1, 2010   |   Durham, NC   |   CGGC, Duke University
   |   Gary Gereffi, Karina Fernandez-Stark
This report analyzes the evolving offshore services industry employing the Global Value Chain framework. Offshore services emerged as a dynamic global sector in the past two decades. Companies in their search for efficiencies and economies of scale began offshoring and outsourcing a variety of corporate functions. This report was commissioned by the Chilean Agency for Economic Development (CORFO).
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Chile's Offshore Services Value Chain

March 1, 2010   |   Durham, NC   |   CGGC, Duke University
   |   Karina Fernandez-Stark, Penny Bamber, Gary Gereffi
This report presents the Chilean offshore services industry value chain. The authors provide in- depth analysis of the ITO, BPO and KPO segments, including both the current level of development and challenges for future growth. This report was commissioned by the Chilean Agency for Economic Development (CORFO).
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A Value Chain Analysis of Wild-Caught Shrimp in Sinaloa, Mexico

March 15, 2010   |   Durham, NC   |   Kristen Dubay, Saori Tokuoka, Gary Gereffi
This report illustrates the value chain of wild-caught shrimp landed in Sinaloa, Mexico and the environmental implications of fishing practices in the region. It highlights opportunities to link U.S. market interest for this product with development of environmentally sustainable fishing practices in the Gulf of California.
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U.S. Adoption of High-Efficiency Motors and Drives: Lessons Learned

February 25, 2010   |   Durham, NC   |   Marcy Lowe, Ghada Ahmed, Saori Tokuoka
Motor systems used by manufacturing industries play a large role in national energy profiles. In the United States, industrial motor systems account for about 17% of total electricity use. U.S. adoption of more efficient motors and motor systems could save an estimated 62-104 billion kilowatt hours of electricity annually, at a cost savings of $3-5 billion.
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The Development and Diffusion of Powder Coatings in the US and Europe

February 15, 2010   |   Durham, NC   |   Lukas Brun
Powder coatings eliminate VOCs released during industrial coating processes and offer additional environmental and economic benefits over petroleum-based coatings. The report traces the history of powder coatings in the United States and Europe, identifies the powder coating value chain structure, the ability of key players to affect the industry, and some challenges of the Chinese powder coating market.
Powder Coatings Report  ECJ Article  Powder Coating Magazine  Technical Appendix

Public Transit Buses: A Green Choice Gets Greener

October 26, 2009   |   Durham, NC   |   Marcy Lowe, Bengu Aytekin, Gary Gereffi, contributing researchers: Ghada Ahmed, Tyler Hall, Saori Tokuoka
Buses represent 25,000 to 33,000 domestic jobs, many overlapping with the heavy truck industry. U.S. firms are leading the development of hybrid, all-electric and other "green" buses--the future of the industry.
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Wind Power

September 22, 2009   |   Durham, NC   |   Gloria Ayee, Marcy Lowe, Gary Gereffi
U.S. employment in wind power is estimated at 85,000 jobs and growing quickly, with opportunities to employ workers and capacity from other industries like automotive and aerospace.
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Residential Re-Insulation

August 2, 2010   |   Durham, NC
With 46 million underinsulated homes in the United States, an expanding re-insulation market could save energy and create U.S. jobs for contractors, insulation installers, distributors, manufacturers, and material suppliers. This report is part of the Manufacturing Climate Solutions series.Posted: August 6, 2009.
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Hybrid Drivetrains for Medium- and Heavy-Duty Trucks

June 2009   |   Durham, NC   |   Marcy Lowe, Gloria Ayee, Gary Gereffi
The United States is well positioned to take the lead in hybrid commercial trucks, a new, fast- growing market that promises future U.S. jobs in truck manufacturing, advanced energy storage, electronics, and software. This report is part of the Manufacturing Climate Solutions series.
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Carbon Capture and Storage

May 2009   |   Durham, NC   |   Kristen Dubay, Gary Gereffi, Lukas Brun
Chapter 8 of the Manufacturing Climate Solutions report focuses on carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies. These technologies will allow the U.S. to continue using fossil fuel for power generation while also achieving national goals to reduce CO2 emissions. These billion dollar projects also present huge U.S.-based employment opportunities in fields ranging from R&D to manufacturing and construction.
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Manufacturing Climate Change: Infinia Corporation Case Study

February 2009   |   Washington DC
J.D. Sitton, President and CEO of Infinia Corporation, speaks at the Good Jobs, Green Jobs National Conference. Infinia is highlighted in CGGC's Manufacturing Climate Solutions report.
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Manufacturing Climate Change: Recycled Energy Development (RED) Case Study

February 2009   |   Washington DC
Richard Munson, Senior VP of Strategic Planning and Public Affairs at Recycled Energy Development (RED), speaks at the Good Jobs, Green Jobs National Conference. RED is highlighted in CGGC's Manufacturing Climate Solutions report.
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Manufacturing Climate Change: Cree Business Case Study

February 2009   |   Washington DC
Gregg Merritt, VP of Corporate Marketing at Cree Inc., speaks at the Good Jobs, Green Jobs National Conference. Cree is highlighted in CGGC's Manufacturing Climate Solutions report.
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A Global Value Chain Approach to Food Safety and Quality Standards

February 4, 2009   |   Durham, NC   |   Gary Gereffi, Joonkoo Lee
This paper builds an analytic model to explain the relationship between value chain structures, food safety standards and food safety levels. The paper shows how both developed and developing countries are affected by and respond to the transformation of the global agri-food industry as well as the system of changing food safety standards. This paper was prepared for the Global Health Diplomacy for Chronic Disease Protection Working Paper Series.
Paper

Recycling Industrial Waste Energy

February 2009   |   Durham, NC   |   Marcy Lowe, Gary Gereffi
Many industrial processes discard exhaust heat, combustible gases, and other "waste" energy. These highly recoverable resources can be harnessed to generate electricity, thus saving energy costs, reducing CO2 emissions, creating new jobs, and protecting existing jobs by increasing productivity and competitiveness.
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Heat Pump Water Heaters

February 2009   |   Durham, NC   |   Kristen Dubay, Gloria Ayee, Gary Gereffi
Current residential heat pump water heater products are add-on units used in conjunction with conventional storage tanks and they are produced by a handful of very small U.S. companies. The recent introduction of ENERGY STAR water heater criteria appears to be incentivizing some larger appliance manufacturers to develop new heat pump water heater products that will be more widely available. If consumer interest in heat pump water heaters increases, the market would need to scale up significantly to meet greater demands, opening greater opportunities for U.S. component manufacturing in the value chain.
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A Value Chain Analysis of the U.S. Beef & Dairy Industries

February 16, 2009   |   Durham, NC   |   Marcy Lowe, Gary Gereffi
Livestock farms are a major source of greenhouse gases. Certain practices in feeding and manure management can reduce these and other environmental impacts, but how do you encourage 967,440 U.S. farms, ranches and feedlots to adopt these best practices? We find that the strongest leverage for effecting such change lies in the downstream players in the value chain.
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Super Soil Systems

November 2008   |   Durham, NC   |   Gary Gereffi, Marcy Lowe
Super Soil is not yet commercially available, but it is an example of a technology that could potentially be widely adopted. The adoption of this or similar technologies would involve manufacturing jobs producing large tanks. Additional manufacturing jobs would be needed to make the equipment, along with the associated requirements for steel, glass, concrete, and other materials, and construction jobs to build the facility. This new technology for treating hog wastes could allow the United States to become a global market leader in a sector where, until now, no adequate alternative has been available.
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Concentrating Solar Power

November 2008   |   Durham, NC   |   Gary Gereffi, Kristen Dubay
Concentrating solar power (CSP) represents a clean, powerful, endless, and reliable source of energy with the capacity to entirely satisfy the present and future electricity needs in the U.S. The new market for concentrating solar power plants has potential to create numerous U.S. manufacturing and construction jobs as U.S. companies grow and foreign firms come to the United States.
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Auxiliary Power Units for Trucks

November 2008   |   Durham, NC   |   Gary Gereffi, Kristen Dubay
Integration of auxiliary power units into long-haul truck manufacturing in the near future will likely increase penetration rates dramatically, with a corresponding boost to manufacturing. Expanded production of APUs would create economic opportunity at all stages of the value chain by increasing purchases from material and component suppliers. Additional value chain opportunities will likely come when APU technology is integrated as a component in tractor manufacturing rather than being an aftermarket product.
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High-Performance Windows

November 2008   |   Durham, NC   |   Gary Gereffi, Kristen Dubay
High performance window technology is well developed, and widespread use of these more efficient windows is leading to demand for even better performance. The U.S. industry faces new, more stringent efficiency criteria that may spur manufacturers to retool production lines and further innovate. Over the course of criteria changes, jobs may have to develop more efficient products. The ability of companies to respond to criteria changes may determine which companies will benefit and which will struggle to compete.
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LED Lighting

November 2008   |   Durham, NC   |   Gary Gereffi, Marcy Lowe
Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are a semiconductor technology whose application to general-purpose lighting is rapidly growing, with significant potential for energy savings. The market for general-purpose LED lighting is currently very small, but it is growing rapidly as the technology improves and costs go down. Leading U.S. manufacturers find it crucial to ensure high quality and to protect their innovations--two good reasons to keep the manufacturing close to home.
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Duke Study Says "Going Green" Will Grow Jobs in U.S.

November 19, 2008   |   Durham, NC
An article in the Raleigh News & Observer about the new report from the Center on Globalization, Governance & Competitiveness, called Manufacturing Climate Solutions, which presents a new research approach linking U.S. jobs with selected low-carbon technologies that can help combat global warming.
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Study Pinpoints “Green” Jobs in NC

November 18, 2008   |   Durham, NC
NBC-17 TV NEWS video highlights examples of "green" jobs in North Carolina. Value chain analysis of these jobs is presented in Manufacturing Climate Solutions, a new report from CGGC.
NBC-17 TV News Video

A Value Chain Analysis of the U.S. Pork Industry

October 3, 2008   |   Durham, NC   |   Marcy Lowe, Gary Gereffi
Over-use of antibiotics in hog production poses the risk of creating antibiotic-resistant bacteria, seriously threatening human health. Reducing antibiotic use, however, poses challenges to hog farmers. By analyzing the value chain, we can better understand the industry’s dynamics, preparing the way for further work to find ways of protecting public health that also make good business sense.
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The Governance Structure of U.S.-Based Food and Agriculture Value Chains and their Relevance to Healthy Diets

June 17, 2008   |   Durham, NC
This paper outlines the global value chains (GVCs) of the chicken and tomato industries, showing how these industries have changed over time, who is driving that change, and how different segments of the value chain affect healthy diets and impact low-income populations. The authors specifically address how the lead firms in the global value chains of the chicken and tomato industries are a part of the processed food revolution and how this potentially impacts low-income communities.
Paper

Food Production Systems, Trade, and Transnational Corporations: A Global Value Chains Approach to Consumption and Healthy Diets

April 19, 2008   |   Durham, NC
This paper explores the connections between the spread of obesity, especially in developing countries, and the interrelated expansion of trade, foreign direct investment, and transnational corporations (TNCs). The authors outline how the main concepts and methods of global value chains analysis can be applied to identify the direct and indirect linkages between the global economic processes of trade, foreign and direct investment, and food consumption.
Paper

A Value Chain Analysis of Selected California Crops

July 4, 2008   |   Durham, NC   |   Marcy Lowe
California is the most diversified agricultural economy in the world, generating more agricultural value than many countries. In the value chains for two selected crops—grain corn and processed tomatoes—we identify the players positioned to encourage environmental best practices.
EDF California Crops Report  EDF Report: Appendix A and B

An Analysis of the U.S. Real Estate Value Chain

April 22, 2008   |   Durham, NC   |   CGGC
   |   Marcy Lowe
The Environmental Defense Fund is known for partnering with lead firms to find green solutions that make good business sense. Recognizing that buildings account for 40% of U.S. energy consumption, EDF asked CGGC to analyze the U.S. real estate industry and find key firms that are well-positioned to find innovative business practices to reduce building energy use. Among the report's key findings:
* In the finance segment of the value chain, there is greater leverage on the equity side than on the debt side. In other words, when it comes to working with building owners and developers, investors have greater influence than lenders
* The greatest energy-saving potential in the value chain lies in a) companies that own and operate real estate, and b) firms that either invest in them or manage property for them.
EDF Real Estate Report  EDF Report: Appendices

A Global Value Chains Approach to Food, Healthy Diets, and Childhood Obesity

November 5, 2007   |   Durham, NC   |   Gary Gereffi, Michelle Christian
A challenge associated with the nutrition transition in developing countries (i.e.,simultaneous presence of over-nutrition and under-nutrition, both being most prevalent in the poorest population segments) is the integration of their markets into the global economy. This integration determined rapid and strong changes in the production and trade of agricultural goods in the developing countries as well as growing foreign direct investments in food processing and retailing, and the expansion of food advertisements with obvious implications for dietary patterns and the risk of obesity.
Paper

Prospects for Canada in the NAFTA Automotive Industry: A Global Value Chain Analysis

March 14, 2007   |   Timothy Sturgeon, Johannes Van Biesebroeck, Gary Gereffi
This paper examines trends in the North American automotive industry, and asks if Canada's historical comparative advantage in the industry is sustainable. The report was prepared for Industry Canada.
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