Publications

Global Value Chains & Development

Nanotechnology in Society: An Overview

2015   |    Christine Shearer, Jennifer Rogers-Brown, Stacey Frederick

This Short Subject provides an introduction to nanotechnology, its potential risks and applications, and current regulation in the United States and California. "Nano" refers to particles and effects scaled at billionths of a meter. Emerging applications hold great promise in many areas, including new ways to treat cancer.

California Research Bureau, Short Subject February, S-15-002  View PDF

The Future of Manufacturing: Driving Capabilities, Enabling Investments

2014   |    Gary Gereffi, Stacey Frederick

This report focuses on an analysis of trends in global manufacturing, mostly from a value chain perspective, and represents a joint effort between the World Economic Forum Global Agenda Council on the Future of Manufacturing and the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO). It emphasizes that future developments in global manufacturing are increasingly relying upon the development of capabalities related to innovation, labour and infrastructures. Developed countries have experienced a substantial decline in manufacturing employment, but this trend has also been counterbalanced by improvements in manufacturing capabilities. While developed countries remain among the most competitive, as noted by UNIDO’s Competitive Industrial Performance Index, many developing countries have substantially improved their industrial competitiveness. An overview of the apparel industry stresses the fact that value chains can be upgraded to help manufacturing actors develop their capabilities.

Report by the WEF Global Agenda Council on the Future of Manufacturing and UNIDO   View PDF   View Media

North Carolina's Manufacturing Wage Gap

2014   |    Gary Gereffi, Aaron Sydor

CGGC Research Brief   View PDF

Shifting Sources of Wheat Supply for MENA Countries: the Rise of the Black Sea

2014   |    Annelies Goger, Ajmal Abdulsamad, Danny Hamrick, Ghada Ahmed, Andrew Guinn, Jack Daly, Jonathan Morgan, Gary Gereffi

Duke MINERVA Research Brief No. 3, May  View Research Brief

Risks and Opportunities of Participation in Global Value Chains

2014   |    Gary Gereffi, Xubei Luo

Contemporary globalization has been marked by significant shifts in the organization and governance of global industries. In the 1970s and 1980s, one such shift was characterized by the emergence of buyer-driven and producer-driven commodity chains. In the early 2000s, a more differentiated typology of governance structures was introduced, which focused on new types of coordination in global value chains (GVCs). Today the organization of the global economy is entering another phase, with transformations that are reshaping the governance structures of both GVCs and global capitalism at various levels: (1) the end of the Washington Consensus and the rise of contending centers of economic and political power; (2) a combination of geographic consolidation and value chain concentration in the global supply base, which, in some cases, is shifting bargaining power from lead firms in GVCs to large suppliers in developing economies; (3) new patterns of strategic coordination among value chain actors; (4) a shift in the end markets of many GVCs accelerated by the economic crisis of 2008–09, which is redefining regional geographies of investment and trade; and (5) a diffusion of the GVC approach to major international donor agencies, which is prompting a reformulation of established development paradigms.

World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No. 6847  View PDF

Comparing Egypt and Saudi Arabia’s Wheat GVC

2014   |    Danny Hamrick, Ghada Ahmed, Andrew Guinn, Ajmal Abdulsamad, Annelies Goger, Jack Daly, Jonathan Morgan, Gary Gereffi

Duke MINERVA Research Brief No. 2, April  View Research Brief

Global Value Chain Analysis and Food Security

2014   |    Andrew Guinn, Danny Hamrick, Ghada Ahmed, Ajmal Abdulsamad, Annelies Goger, Jack Daly, Jonathan Morgan, Gary Gereffi

Duke MINERVA Research Brief No. 1, April  View Research Brief

Globalization, Recession and the Internationalization of Industrial Districts: Experiences from the Italian Gold Jewelry Industry

2014   |    Valentina De Marchi, Joonkoo Lee, Gary Gereffi

European Planning Studies 22(4), p. 866-884  View Paper

Global value chains in a post-Washington Consensus world

2014   |    Gary Gereffi

Review of International Political Economy 21(1), p. 9-37  View Paper

Towards Better Work in Central America: Nicaragua and the CAFTA Context

2014   |    Jennifer Bair, Gary Gereffi

Towards Better Work: Understanding Labour in Apparel Global Value Chains Pp. 251-275 in Arianna Rossi, Amy Luinstra and John Pickles (eds.), Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan and the International Labour Office

Latin America’s emergence in global services A new driver of structural change in the region?

2014   |    Rene Hernandez, Nanno Mulder, Karina Fernandez-Stark, Pierre Sauve, Dorotea Lopez Giral, Felipe Muñoz Navia

Karina Fernandez-Stark is an editor of this recent ECLAC book on the service industry in Latin America.

ECLAC Book   View Book

Twelve Years of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Publications in Mexico

2014   |    Edgar Lau Záyago, Stacey Frederick, Guillermo Foladori

This article reviews information from the Web of Science relevant to articles on nanoscience and nanotechnology in Mexico over 12 years (2000 - 2012), and explains the changes in S&T policy.

Journal of Nanoparticle Research Volume 16, Issue 1, p. 2193  Article Link

A indústria brasileira e as cadeias globais de valor

2014   |    Timothy Sturgeon, Andrew Guinn, Ezequiel Zylberberg

 Book CoverAs indústrias estão deixando de atuar apenas nos mercados domésticos e tornam-se cada vez mais internacionalizadas. Nos últimos 50 anos, o mundo tem passado por transformações que afetam significativamente a produção e o comércio globais. A manufatura, antes local, agora é mundial. Empresas e países se especializam não na fabricação de bens, mas nas etapas do processo produtivo.

Elsevier   Read More  View Summary

Making Foreign Direct Investment Work for Sub-Saharan Africa: Chapter 7: Sector Case Study: Apparel

2014   |    Cornelia Staritz, Stacey Frederick

Foreign direct investment (FDI) is becoming an increasingly significant catalyst for output and trade in developing countries, in part due to a major expansion in the scope of global value chains (GVCs). FDI delivers a number of important contributions to economic development in terms of investment, employment, and foreign exchange.

Making Foreign Direct Investment Work for Sub-Saharan Africa: Local Spillovers and Competitiveness in Global Value Chains Pp. 209-244 in T. Farole and D. Winkler (eds.), Washington, DC: The World Bank.  View Publisher's Website   View Book PDF

Connecting Local Producers in Developing Countries to Regional and Global Value Chains

2013   |    Penny Bamber, Karina Fernandez-Stark, Gary Gereffi, Andrew Guinn

This report, commissioned by the Trade and Agriculture Directorate of the OECD, analyzes the specific factors that affect the competitiveness of developing countries in regional and global value chains (GVCs), and how these factors differ across four major economic sectors: agriculture, extractive industries, manufacturing and offshore services. The analysis highlights that in order to participate gainfully in GVCs, developing countries must adopt industry-specific policy frameworks that reflect the changing reality of global business. Keywords: global and regional value chains, developing countries, competitiveness, productive capacity, inclusive growth, trade integration

OECD Trade Policy Paper No. 160  View PDF   View Publisher's Website

Brazil in Global Value Chains: Implications for Trade and Industrial Policy

2013   |    Timothy Sturgeon, Gary Gereffi, Andrew Guinn, Ezequiel Zylberberg

Article in the Brazilian Journal of Foreign Trade. Also available in Portuguese: O Brasil nas cadeias globais de valor: implicações para a política industrial e de comércio

Funcex Magazine Issue 115  View PDF   View PDF (Portugese)

Joining, Upgrading and Being Competitive in Global Value Chains

2013   |    Olivier Cattaneo, Garry Gereffi, Sebastien Miroudot, Daria Taglioni

In recent years, global value chains have played an increasing role in business strategies, profoundly affecting international trade and development paradigms. Global value chains now represent a major source of socio-upgrading opportunities and a new path for development. Trade, competitiveness and development policies should be reshaped accordingly to seize these opportunities and avoid the risks associated with greater participation in global value chains. This paper provides a framework and analytical tools for measuring and improving a country’s performance with respect to participation in global value chains.

World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No. 6406  View PDF

Beyond the Annual Budget: Global Experience with Medium-Term Expenditure Frameworks (Case Studies)

2013   |    Ghada Ahmed

Ghada Ahmed was a contributor to the case studies on Ghana and South Africa in the appendices of the book.

  Read More  View PDF

Market and Technology Trends in Underwater: Sensors & Instumentation

2012   |    Joonkoo Lee, Mary Turnipseed, Lukas Brun

Underwater sensors and instrumentation have been developed for a broad range of activities – including mapping the seafloor, communicating underwater, locating underwater objects, and observing underwater animals and plants – carried out by government, industry, and the scientific research community. The Duke University Center on Globalization, Governance & Competitiveness (CGGC) recently completed a study on the global value chains of ocean technologies, including underwater sensors and instrumentation, for a consortium led by Nova Scotia’s Department of Economic and Rural Development and Tourism (ERDT). Excerpts from the report on the market and technology trends in acoustic and nonacoustic underwater sensors and instrumentation are provided in this article.

Marine Technology Reporter 55(9), p. 36-40  View PDF

ROV/AUV Trends: Market and Technology

2012   |    Lukas Brun

The Duke University Center on Globalization, Governance and Competitiveness (CGGC) recently completed a study on ocean technologies, including remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) and autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs), for a consortium led by Nova Scotia’s Department of Economic and Rural Development and Tourism (ERDT). Excerpts from the report on the market and technology trends in ROVs and AUVs are provided in this article.

Marine Technology Reporter September, p. 48-51  View PDF

California in the Nano Economy

2012   |    Stacey Frederick

InterNano National Nanomanufacturing Network (NNN)   View Article Online  View PDF

Global Value Chains and Agrifoods Standards: Challenges and Possibilities for Smallholders in Developing Countries

2012   |    Joonkoo Lee, Gary Gereffi, Janet Beauvais

The rise of private food standards has brought forth an ongoing debate about whether they work as a barrier for smallholders and hinder poverty reduction in developing countries. This paper uses a global value chain approach to explain the relationship between value chain structure and agrifood safety and quality standards and to discuss the challenges and possibilities this entails for the upgrading of smallholders. Part of the Special Feature on “Agriculture Development and Nutrition Security.”

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Vol. 109, No. 31, p. 12326-12331  View PDF   View Publication

Why the World Suddenly Cares About Global Supply Chains

2012   |    Gary Gereffi, Joonkoo Lee

The global value chain (GVC) concept has gained popularity as a way to analyze the international expansion and geographical fragmentation of contemporary supply chains and value creation and capture therein. It has been used broadly in academic publications that examine a wide range of global industries, and by many of the international organizations concerned with economic development. This note highlights some of the main features of GVC analysis and discusses the relationship between the core concepts of governance and upgrading.

Journal of Supply Chain Management 48, 3 (July): 24-32.  View PDF   View Article

ROVs: A Global Value Chain Perspective

2012   |    Lukas Brun

This article discusses the ROV value chain and Nova Scotia’s position within the chain.

Marine Technology Reporter 55(5), p. 16-21  View PDF

Shipbuilding in Nova Scotia

2012   |    Joonkoo Lee, Lukas Brun

This article reviews Nova Scotia's shipbuilding capabilities and emerging market opportunities.

Maritime Reporter and Engineering News June, p. 50-51  View PDF

Part 2: Summaries of the Country Case Studies on Apparel Industry Development, Structure, and Policies

2012   |    Cornelia Staritz, Stacey Frederick

Part 2 of this book (Chapters 8-16) provides a detailed case study of the global value chain dynamics in the textile and apparel industries of each of the nine countries.

Sewing Success? Employment, Wages, and Poverty following the End of the Multi-fibre Arrangement p. 211-497, In G. Lopez-Acevedo & R. Robertson (Eds), Washington, DC: The World Bank  View PDF

Developments in the Global Apparel Industry after the MFA Phaseout

2012   |    Stacey Frederick, Cornelia Staritz

This chapter introduces dynamics in the global apparel value chain with a focus on the impacts of the lifting of the Multi-fibre Arrangement/ Agreement on Textiles and Clothing (MFA/ATC) and the global economic crisis in nine countries. A detailed analysis of each country is in Part 2 of this book.

Sewing Success? Employment, Wages, and Poverty following the End of the Multi-fibre Arrangement Pgs. 41-86, In G. Lopez-Acevedo & R. Robertson (Eds.), Washington, DC: The World Bank   View PDF

Upgrading and Restructuring in the Global Apparel Value Chain: Why China and Asia are Outperforming Mexico and Central America

2011   |    Stacey Frederick, Gary Gereffi

This article uses the global value chain approach to analyze the upgrading trajectories of leading apparel exporters adapting to the end of textile and apparel quotas and the economic recession.

International Journal Technological Learning, Innovation and Development Vol. 4, No. 1/2/3, p. 67-95  View Citation

Private Employment Agencies in Morocco

2011   |    Ghada Ahmed

This working paper and the Global Dialogue Forum are part of the ILO’s Sectoral Activities Programme.

ILO Sectoral Activities Programme: Working Paper No. 283  View Report

Increasing Stakeholder Participation in Industry Cluster Identification

2011   |    Lukas Brun

This paper illustrates how one community pursued a collaborative approach to cluster identification and the costs and benefits of the method. It finds that increased stakeholder participation in the cluster identification stage improved the analytical qua

Economic Development Quarterly Vol. 25, No. 3, pgs. 211-220   View Abstract

Traveling Technologies: Societal Implications of Nanotechnology Through the Global Value Chain

2011   |    Julie Dillemuth, Stacey Frederick, Rachel Parker, Gary Gereffi, Richard Appelbaum

Journal of Nano Education Volume 3, Numbers 1-2, pp. 36-44  View Article

China's (Not So Hidden) Developmental State: Becoming a Leading Nanotechnology Innovator in the Twenty-First Century

2011   |    Richard Appelbaum, Rachel Parker, Cong Cao, Gary Gereffi

This paper looks at how the debate over innovation is reflected in China's approach to national development, especially with respect to the use of nanotechnology.

State of Innovation: The U.S. Government's Role in Technology Development. Pp. 217-235 in Fred Block and Matthew R. Keller (eds.), Boulder, CO: Paradigm Publishers.

Global value chains and agrifoods standards: Challenges and possibilities for smallholders in developing countries

2010   |    Joonkoo Lee, Gary Gereffi, Janet Beauvais

The rise of private food standards has brought forth an ongoing debate about whether they work as a barrier for smallholders and hinder poverty reduction in developing countries. This paper uses a global value chain approach to explain the relationship between value chain structure and agrifood safety and quality standards and to discuss the challenges and possibilities this entails for the upgrading of smallholders. It maps four potential value chain scenarios depending on the degree of concentration in the markets for agrifood supply (farmers and manufacturers) and demand (supermarkets and other food retailers) and discusses the impact of lead firms and key intermediaries on smallholders in different chain situations. Each scenario is illustrated with case examples. Theoretical and policy issues are discussed, along with proposals for future research in terms of industry structure, private governance, and sustainable value chains.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Vol. 109, no. 31  View Article   View Publisher's Website

Global Production Networks and Decent Work in India and China: Evidence from the Apparel, Automotive, and Information Technology Industries

2010   |    Gary Gereffi, Esra Guler

Labour in Global Production Networks in India. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. Pp. 103-126 in Anne Posthuma and Dev Nathan (eds.)

The Prospects for Mexico in the North American Automotive Industry: A Global Value Chain Perspective

2010   |    Timothy Sturgeon, Gary Gereffi, Kimberly B. Rogers, Karina Fernandez-Stark

Timothy Sturgeon, Gary Gereffi, Kimberly B. Rogers, and Karina Fernandez-Stark No. 42 (March): 11-22.

How Many Highly Skilled Foreign-Born Are Waiting in Line for U.S. Legal Permanent Residence?

2010   |    Guillermina Jasso, Vivek Wadhwa, Gary Gereffi, Ben Rissing, Richard Freemen

International Migration Review 44(2), p. 477-498

Global Value Chains in a Postcrisis World: A Development Perspective

2010   |    Editors: Olivier Cattaneo, Gary Gereffi, Cornelia Staritz

World Bank Book Cover The World Bank Washington, DC  View Book


The Global Apparel Value Chain, Trade and the Crisis: Challenges and Opportunities for Developing Countries

2010   |    Gary Gereffi, Stacey Frederick

Global Value Chains in a Postcrisis World: A Development Perspective. Washington, DC: The World Bank. Pp. 157-208 in Olivier Cattaneo, Gary Gereffi and Cornelia Staritz (eds.)

The Offshore Services Value Chain: Developing Countries and the Crisis

2010   |    Gary Gereffi, Karina Fernandez-Stark

Global Value Chains in a Postcrisis World: A Development Perspective. Washington, DC: The World Bank. Pp. 335-372 in Olivier Cattaneo, Gary Gereffi and Cornelia Staritz (eds.)

Regulation and Economic Globalization: Prospects and Limits of Private Governance

2010   |    Frederick Mayer, Gary Gereffi

Corporate codes of conduct, product certifications, process standards, and other voluntary, non-governmental forms of private governance have proliferated in the last two decades. These innovations are a response to social pressures unleashed by globaliza

Business Politics Mayer, Frederick and Gereffi, Gary (2010)   View Paper

Powder coating: A global value chain perspective

2010   |    Lukas Brun, Ruggero Golini

Powder Coating 21(1), p. 29-33  View PDF

Employment and Human Resource Services in Egypt

2010   |    Ghada Ahmed

This study was undertaken and written by Ms. Ghada Ahmed, currently a CGGC Research Associate, as her Master’s Project toward completion of her Master’s in International Development Policy from Duke’s Sanford School of Public Policy in 2010.

Duke University Master's Project   View PDF

The Marketing and Distribution of Fast Food

2010   |    Michelle Christian, Gary Gereffi

This chapter seeks to advance the multilevel approach to studying childhood obesity by focusing on the "macro" level of corporations in the global economy. We use a global value chains (GVC) framework to explain how the structure of food and agricultural value chains, with an emphasis on the fast-food segment, affects individual consumption choices.

Pediatric Obesity: Etiology, Pathogenesis, and Treatment Pp. 439- 450 in Michael Freemark (ed.) New York: Humana Press.  View Publication

Trade, Transnational Corporations and Food Consumption: A Global Value Chain Approach

2010   |    Gary Gereffi, Michelle Christian

This paper explores the connections between the spread of obesity, especially in developing countries, and the interrelated expansion of trade, foreign direct investment, and transnational corporations (TNCs). The authors outline how the main concepts and methods of global value chains analysis can be applied to identify the direct and indirect linkages between the global economic processes of trade, foreign and direct investment, and food consumption.

Trade, Food, Diet and Health: Perspectives and Policy Options   View Chapter

U.S.-Based Food and Agricultural Value Chains and Their Relevance to Healthy Diets

2009   |    Gary Gereffi, Joonkoo Lee, Michelle Christian

This paper outlines the global value chains (GVCs) of the chicken and tomato industries, showing how these industries have changed over time, who is driving that change, and how different segments of the value chain affect healthy diets and impact low-income populations. The authors specifically address how the lead firms in the global value chains of the chicken and tomato industries are a part of the processed food revolution and how this potentially impacts low-income communities.

Journal of Hunger & Environmental Nutrition Gereffi, G., Lee, J. and Christian, M. (2009). 'US-Based Food and Agricultural Value Chains and their Relevance to Healthy Diets', Journal of Hunger & Environmental Nutrition, 4: 3, 357-374.  View Article   View Publisher's Website

Powder Coatings in China

2009   |    Lukas Brun, Ruggero Golini

European Coatings Journal   Read More

Value Chain Governance

2009   |    Stacey Frederick, Gary Gereffi

This briefing paper explains the importance of identifying governance structures when conducting value chain analysis. It describes the factors, types, and determinants of governance, and gives recommendations for practitioners to intervene. Also available in Spanish (La Gobernabilad de la Cadena de Valor).

USAID Briefing Paper   View Briefing Paper   View Publisher's Website  View Spanish Version

The North American Automotive Value Chain: Canada's Role and Prospects

2009   |    Timothy Sturgeon, Johannes Van Biesebroeck, Gary Gereffi

This paper deals with the North American automotive value chain and analyzes the prospects for Canadian automotive sector upgrading. Canada continues to have marginally lower operating costs than the USA and a strong industrial culture that attracts inves

International Journal of Technological Learning, Trade and Development Sturgeon, T.J., Van Biesebroeck, J. and Gereffi, G. (2009) ‘The North American automotive value chain: Canada’s role and prospects’, Int. J. Technological Learning, Innovation and Development, Vol. 2, Nos. 1/2, pp.25–52.  View Article

The American Brain Drain and Asia

2009   |    Vivek Wadhwa, Gary Gereffi, Alex Salkever

Asia-Pacific Journal Vol. 14-1-09, April 4  View Article

Globalisation of the Automotive Industry: Main Features and Trends

2009   |    Timothy Sturgeon, Olga Memedovic, Johannes Van Biesebroeck, Gary Gereffi

This paper lays out the main features of the global automotive industry and identifies several important trends.

International Journal Technological Learning, Innovation and Development Vol 2, No 1/2, p. 7-24  View PDF

Governance & Upgrading

2009   |    Stacey Frederick

The USAID Microlinks Value Chain wiki is a tool for those interested in learning more about the value chain research approach. Frederick wrote the content for the overview and in-depth upgrading and governance sections.

USAID Value Chain Development Wiki   View Upgrading Section  View Governance Section

The Impacts of Wal-Mart: The Rise and Consequences of the World's Dominant Retailer

2009   |    Gary Gereffi and Michelle Christian

Annual Review of Sociology 35: 573-591.  Read More

Review and Analysis of Protectionist Actions in the Textile and Apparel Industries

2009   |    Stacey Frederick, Gary Gereffi

The Fateful Allure of Protectionism: Taking Stock for the G8 Pp. 65-68 in Simon J. Evenett, Bernard M. Hoekman, and Olivier Cattaneo (eds.) Washington, DC and London: The World Bank and the Centre for Economic Policy Research.

Protectionism in Textiles and Apparel

2009   |    Stacey Frederick, Gary Gereffi

Effective Crisis Response and Openness: Implications for the Trading System Pp. 321-344 in Simon Evenett, Bernard Hoekman and Olivier Cattaneo (eds.) Washington, DC and London: The World Bank and the Centre for Economic Policy Research (CEPR)

America's Loss is the World's Gain: America's New Immigrant Entrepreneurs: Part IV

2009   |    Vivek Wadhwa, AnnaLee Saxenian, Richard Freeman, Gary Gereffi

This paper attempts to answer questions on immigration and entrepreneurship through a survey of 1,203 Indian and Chinese immigrants who had worked or received their education in the United States and returned to their home country.

SSRN; America's New Immigrant Entrepreneurs Series   View Article on SSRN

A Global Value Chain Approach to Food Safety and Quality Standards

2009   |    Gary Gereffi, Joonkoo Lee

Report prepared for the Global Health Diplomacy for Chronic Disease Protection Working Paper Series   View PDF

Measuring Success in the Global Economy: International Trade, Industrial Upgrading and Business Function Outsourcing in Global Value Chains

2009   |    Timothy Sturgeon, Gary Gereffi

Transnational Corporations 18, 2 (August): 1-35.  Read More

Development Models and Industrial Upgrading in China and Mexico

2009   |    Gary Gereffi

This article provides a broad comparison of the development models in Latin America and China, with an emphasis on how each has changed in recent decades. The article uses international trade data to examine industrial upgrading patterns in Mexico and Chi

European Sociological Review 25, 1 (February): 37-51  View Article

The Challenge of Global Value Chains: Why Integrative Trade Requires New Thinking and New Data

2008   |    Timothy Sturgeon, Gary Gereffi

Report prepared for Industry Canada. This paper was prepared in response to a request from Industry Canada to develop recommendations for collecting data on the position of Canadian firms in global value chains (GVCs).

Report prepared for Industry Canada   View Paper

How the Disciple Became the Guru

2008   |    Vivek Wadhwa, Una Kim de Vitton, Gary Gereffi

This paper is based on detailed interviews with the CEOs, HR executives, R&D managers, and employees of 24 leading companies in rapidly growing sectors in India. The authors present an overview of best practices.

SSRN Working Paper   View Article on SSRN   View SSRN Abstract

The Globalization of Innovation: Can India and China Cure the Global Pharmaceutical Market?

2008   |    Vivek Wadhwa, Ben Rissing, Gary Gereffi, John Trumpbour, Pete Engardio

Multinational pharmaceutical corporations are searching for means to broaden their capacity for drug development while decreasing costs. Pharmaceutical firms in India and China are increasingly forging partnerships with these corporations to gain revenue and to develop their own expertise. These relationships largely appear to be symbiotic. As a result of the movement of research to their countries, Indian and Chinese scientists are rapidly developing the ability to innovate and create their own intellectual property. Several firms in India and China are performing advanced R&D and are moving into the highest-value segments of the pharmaceutical global value chain.

Working Paper Series   View Article on SSRN

Skilled Immigration and Economic Growth

2008   |    Vivek Wadhwa, AnnaLee Saxenian, Ben Rissing, Gary Gereffi

This paper explores the educational attainment and career trajectories of immigrant entrepreneurs in the United States.

Applied Research in Economic Development Vol. 5, No. 1, p. 6-14  View Article on SSRN

Value Chains, Networks and Clusters: Reframing the Global Automotive Industry

2008   |    Timothy Sturgeon, Johannes Van Biesebroeck, Gary Gereffi

In this article the global value chain (GVC) approach is used to analyze recent trends in the global automotive industry, with special attention paid to the case of North America. Three elements of the GVC framework are used – firm level chain governance,

Journal of Economic Geography 8, pp. 297-321  View Article

Getting the Numbers Right: International Engineering Education in the United States, China, and India

2008   |    Gary Gereffi, Vivek Wadhwa, Ben Rissing, Ryan Ong

This article challenges the commonly cited statistics for engineering graduates in the United States, China, and India. The authors argue that the key issue in engineering education should be the quality of graduates, not just the quantity, since quantity

Journal of Engineering Education January 2008 Issue, p. 13-25  View Article

Wal-Mart in China: Can the World's Largest Retailer Succeed in the World's Most Populous Market?

2007   |    Gary Gereffi, Ryan Ong

An article in the Harvard Asia Pacific Review on Wal-Mart's place in the China market.

Harvard Asia Pacific Review Winter Issue, p.46-49.   View Article PDF

A Global Value Chains Approach to Food, Healthy Diets, and Childhood Obesity

2007   |    Gary Gereffi, Michelle Christian

A challenge associated with the nutrition transition in developing countries (i.e.,simultaneous presence of over-nutrition and under-nutrition, both being most prevalent in the poorest population segments) is the integration of their markets into the global economy. This integration determined rapid and strong changes in the production and trade of agricultural goods in the developing countries as well as growing foreign direct investments in food processing and retailing, and the expansion of food advertisements with obvious implications for dietary patterns and the risk of obesity.

Conference paper prepared for the WHO Early-Stage Expert Meeting Trade and Healthy Diets, November 12 and 13, 2007 at the Executive Institute, Desautels, Faculty of Management, McGill University, Montreal, Canada   View PDF

North Carolina in the Global Economy: A Value Chain Perspective on the State's Leading Industries

2007   |    Gary Gereffi, Mike Hensen, Ryan Denniston

This article highlights the features of the North Carolina in the Global Economy (NCGE) website.

Journal of Textile and Apparel, Technology and Management JTATM, Volume 5, Issue 4  View Article

Intellectual Property, the Immigration Backlog and a Reverse Brain-Drain: Part III

2007   |    Vivek Wadhwa, Guillermina Jasso, Ben Rissing, Gary Gereffi, Richard Freeman

This Kauffman Foundation-supported study is Part III of the "America's New Immigrant Entrepreneurs" series, which focuses on immigrants' contributions to the competitiveness of the U.S. economy.

America's New Immigrant Entrepreneurs Series   View Paper

Prospects for Canada in the NAFTA Automotive Industry: A Global Value Chain Analysis

2007   |    Timothy Sturgeon, Johannes Van Biesebroeck, Gary Gereffi

This paper examines trends in the North American automotive industry, and asks if Canada's historical comparative advantage in the industry is sustainable. The report was prepared for Industry Canada.

Report prepared for Industry Canada   View PDF

Where the Engineers Are

2007   |    Vivek Wadhwa, Gary Gereffi, Ben Rissing, Ryan Ong

To guide education policy and maintain its innovation leadership, the United States must acquire an accurate understanding of the quantity and quality of engineering graduates in India and China.

National Academy of Science Journal, Issues in Science & Technology   View Article

America's New Immigrant Entrepreneurs: Part I

2007   |    Vivek Wadhwa, AnnaLee Saxenian, Ben Rissing, Gary Gereffi

This paper assesses the contribution of skilled immigrants in the creation of engineering and technology businesses and intellectual property in the United States. The research shows that immigrants have become a significant driving force in the creation

Duke Science, Technology & Innovation Working Paper Series Duke Science, Technology & Innovation Paper No. 23   View Article