Publications

Global Value Chains & Development

North Carolina's Manufacturing Wage Gap

2014   |    Gary Gereffi, Aaron Sydor

  View PDF

OECD Background Paper: Capturing the Gains in Africa, Making the Most of Global Value Chain Participation

2014   |    Goger, Annelies, Andrew Hull, Stephanie Barrientos, Gary Gereffi and Shane Godfrey

This report was commissioned as a background paper for the annual OECD publication, “Africa Economic Outlook (AEO)” 2014. It provides a critical overview of the Capturing the Gains (CTG) research findings from Africa across three industries: horticulture, apparel and tourism. Specific emphasis is placed on identifying opportunities and challenges for economic and social upgrading within African GVCs so that workers and small producers can capture a fairer share of the gains from trade and economic growth. The report also offers sector specific GVC policy recommendations for African policy makers.

Africa Economic Outlook (AEO) Capturing the Gains in Africa: Making the Most of Global Value Chain Participation. Durham, N.C.: Duke Center on Globalization, Goveranance and Competitiveness.   View PDF

Connecting Local Producers in Developing Countries to Regional and Global Value Chains

2013   |    Bamber, Penny, Karina Fernandez-Stark, Gary Gereffi, and Andrew Guinn

This report, commissioned by the Trade and Agriculture Directorate of the OECD, analyzes the specific factors that affect the competitiveness of developing countries in regional and global value chains (GVCs), and how these factors differ across four major economic sectors: agriculture, extractive industries, manufacturing and offshore services. The analysis highlights that in order to participate gainfully in GVCs, developing countries must adopt industry-specific policy frameworks that reflect the changing reality of global business.

OECD Trade Policy Paper Connecting Local Producers in Developing Countries to Regional and Global Value Chains. Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.  View PDF

Joining, Upgrading and Being Competitive in Global Value Chains

2013   |    Olivier Cattaneo, Garry Gereffi, Sebastien Miroudot, Daria Taglioni

A Strategic Framework

In recent years, global value chains have played an increasing role in business strategies, profoundly affecting international trade and development paradigms. Global value chains now represent a major source of socio-upgrading opportunities and a new path for development. Trade, competitiveness and development policies should be reshaped accordingly to seize these opportunities and avoid the risks associated with greater participation in global value chains.
This paper provides a framework and analytical tools for measuring and improving a country’s performance with respect to participation in global value chains.

World Bank Washington, DC, Policy Research Working Paper   View PDF

Beyond the Annual Budget : Global Experience with Medium-Term Expenditure Frameworks

2013   |    World Bank, Ghada Ahmed

This report is structured as follows. Chapter two provides background on what constitutes a medium-term expenditure framework, or MTEF and what it aims to achieve. It also describes the Bank's engagement with MTEFs, presents main points of debate over the experience with MTEFs, and provides a rationale for this study. Chapter three describes the key characteristics of MTEFs, explains the approach used to identify and classify them according to their stage of development, and reviews trends in their adoption. Chapter four outlines the methodological approaches used to examine the impact of MTEFs on fiscal performance, formulates the research hypotheses that are tested in the study, and presents empirical findings from the event studies and econometric analysis. It also presents qualitative insights, informed by case studies, on how MTEFs have affected the quality of budgeting. Chapter five draws some lessons about the key institutional determinants of MTEF performance. Chapter six discusses lessons learned from Bank support for MTEF implementation. Finally, chapter seven presents the conclusions of the study and discusses their implications for the Bank. Several appendixes provide supporting material, including a country-by-country tabulation of MTEF status, a full discussion of econometric results, and country case studies.

World Bank 2013, Washington, DC  Read More  View PDF

Market and Technology Trends in Underwater: Sensors & Instumentation

2012   |    Lukas Brun, Joonkoo Lee, Mary Turnipseed

Underwater sensors and instrumentation have been developed for a broad range of activities – including mapping the seafloor, communicating underwater, locating underwater objects, and observing underwater animals and plants – carried out by government, industry, and the scientific research community. The Duke University Center on Globalization, Governance & Competitiveness (CGGC) recently completed a study on the global value chains of ocean technologies, including underwater sensors and instrumentation, for a consortium led by Nova Scotia’s Department of Economic and Rural Development and Tourism (ERDT). Excerpts from the report on the market and technology trends in acoustic and nonacoustic underwater sensors and instrumentation are provided in this article.

Marine Technology Reporter (pp 4, 36-40).  View PDF

ROV/AUV Trends: Market and Technology

2012   |    Lukas Brun

The Duke University Center on Globalization, Governance and Competitiveness (CGGC) recently completed a study on ocean technologies, including remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) and autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs), for a consortium led by Nova Scotia’s Department of Economic and Rural Development and Tourism (ERDT). Excerpts from the report on the market and technology trends in ROVs and AUVs are provided in this article.

Marine Technology Reporter (pp. 48-51).  View PDF

California in the Nano Economy

2012   |    Stacey Frederick

InterNano National Nanomanufacturing Network (NNN)   View Article Online  View PDF

Global Value Chains and Agrifoods Standards: Challenges and Possibilities for Smallholders in Developing Countries

2012   |    Joonkoo Lee, Gary Gereffi, Janet Beauvais

The rise of private food standards has brought forth an ongoing debate about whether they work as a barrier for smallholders and hinder poverty reduction in developing countries. This paper uses a global value chain approach to explain the relationship between value chain structure and agrifood safety and quality standards and to discuss the challenges and possibilities this entails for the upgrading of smallholders.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 109, no. 31 (July 31): 12326-12331. Part of Special Feature on “Agriculture Development and Nutrition Security.”  View PDF   View Publication

Why the World Suddenly Cares About Global Supply Chains

2012   |    Gary Gereffi, Joonkoo Lee

The global value chain (GVC) concept has gained popularity as a way to analyze the international expansion and geographical fragmentation of contemporary supply chains and value creation and capture therein. It has been used broadly in academic publications that examine a wide range of global industries, and by many of the international organizations concerned with economic development. This note highlights some of the main features of GVC analysis and discusses the relationship between the core concepts of governance and upgrading.

Journal of Supply Chain Management 48, 3 (July): 24-32.  View PDF   View Article

ROVs: A Global Value Chain Perspective

2012   |    Lukas Brun

This article discusses the ROV value chain and Nova Scotia’s position within the chain.

Marine Technology Reporter   View PDF

Shipbuilding in Nova Scotia

2012   |    Joonkoo Lee, Lukas Brun

This article reviews Nova Scotia's shipbuilding capabilities and emerging market opportunities

Maritime Reporter and Engineering News   View PDF

Part 2: Summaries of the Country Case Studies on Apparel Industry Development, Structure, and Policies

2012   |    Cornelia Staritz, Stacey Frederick

Part 2 of this book (Chapters 8-16) provides a detailed case study of the global value chain dynamics in the textile and apparel industries of each of the nine countries.

Sewing Success? Employment, Wages, and Poverty following the End of the Multi-fibre Arrangement p. 211-497, In G. Lopez-Acevedo & R. Robertson (Eds), Washington, DC: The World Bank  View PDF

Developments in the Global Apparel Industry after the MFA Phaseout

2012   |    Stacey Frederick, Cornelia Staritz

This chapter introduces dynamics in the global apparel value chain with a focus on the impacts of the lifting of the Multi-fibre Arrangement/ Agreement on Textiles and Clothing (MFA/ATC) and the global economic crisis in nine countries. A detailed analysis of each country is in Part 2 of this book.

Sewing Success? Employment, Wages, and Poverty following the End of the Multi-fibre Arrangement Pgs. 41-86, In G. Lopez-Acevedo & R. Robertson (Eds.), Washington, DC: The World Bank   View PDF

Upgrading and Restructuring in the Global Apparel Value Chain: Why China and Asia are Outperforming Mexico and Central America

2011   |    Stacey Frederick, Gary Gereffi

This article uses the global value chain approach to analyze the upgrading trajectories of leading apparel exporters adapting to the end of textile and apparel quotas and the economic recession.

International Journal Technological Learning, Innovation and Development Vol. 4, Num. 1/2/3, Pages: 67-95  View Citation

Private Employment Agencies in Morocco

2011   |    Ghada Ahmed

This working paper and the Global Dialogue Forum are part of the ILO’s Sectoral Activities Programme.

ILO Sectoral Activities Programme: Working Paper   View Report

Increasing Stakeholder Participation in Industry Cluster Identification

2011   |    Lukas Brun

This paper illustrates how one community pursued a collaborative approach to cluster identification and the costs and benefits of the method. It finds that increased stakeholder participation in the cluster identification stage improved the analytical qua

Economic Development Quarterly Vol. 25, No. 3, pgs. 211-220   View Abstract

Traveling Technologies: Societal Implications of Nanotechnology Through the Global Value Chain

2011   |    Julie Dillemuth, Stacey Frederick, Rachel Parker, Gary Gereffi, Richard Appelbau

Journal of Nano Education Volume 3, Numbers 1-2, pp. 36-44(9)  View Article

China's (Not So Hidden) Developmental State: Becoming a Leading Nanotechnology Innovator in the Twenty-First Century

2011   |    Richard P. Appelbaum, Rachel Parker, Cong Cao and Gary Gereffi

This paper looks at how the debate over innovation is reflected in China's approach to national development, especially with respect to the use of nanotechnology.

State of Innovation: The U.S. Government's Role in Technology Development. Pp. 217-235 in Fred Block and Matthew R. Keller (eds.), Boulder, CO: Paradigm Publishers.

Global value chains and agrifoods standards: Challenges and possibilities for smallholders in developing countries

2010   |    Joonkoo Lee, Gary Gereffi, Janet Beauvais

The rise of private food standards has brought forth an ongoing debate about whether they work as a barrier for smallholders and hinder poverty reduction in developing countries. This paper uses a global value chain approach to explain the relationship be

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences PNAS Early Edition, Dec 13  View Article

Global Value Chains in a Postcrisis World: A Development Perspective

2010   |    Editors: Olivier Cattaneo, Gary Gereffi, Cornelia Staritz

World Bank Book Cover The World Bank Washington, DC  View Book


How Many Highly Skilled Foreign-Born Are Waiting in Line for U.S. Legal Permanent Residence?

2010   |    Guillermina Jasso, Vivek Wadhwa, Gary Gereffi, Ben Rissing and Richard Freemen

International Migration Review 44, 2 (Summer): 477-498.

The Global Apparel Value Chain, Trade and the Crisis: Challenges and Opportunities for Developing Countries

2010   |    Gary Gereffi and Stacey Frederick

Global Value Chains in a Postcrisis World: A Development Perspective. Washington, DC: The World Bank. Pp. 157-208 in Olivier Cattaneo, Gary Gereffi and Cornelia Staritz (eds.)

Regulation and Economic Globalization: Prospects and Limits of Private Governance

2010   |    Frederick Mayer, Gary Gereffi

Corporate codes of conduct, product certifications, process standards, and other voluntary, non-governmental forms of private governance have proliferated in the last two decades. These innovations are a response to social pressures unleashed by globaliza

Business Politics Mayer, Frederick and Gereffi, Gary (2010)   View Paper

Powder coating: A global value chain perspective

2010   |    Lukas Brun and Ruggero Golini

Powder Coating 21, 1 (Feb): 29-33.  Read More

Employment and Human Resource Services in Egypt

2010   |    Ghada Ahmed

This study was undertaken and written by Ms. Ghada Ahmed, currently a CGGC Research Associate, as her Master’s Project toward completion of her Master’s in International Development Policy from Duke’s Sanford School of Public Policy in 2010.

Duke University Master's Project   View PDF

The Offshore Services Value Chain: Developing Countries and the Crisis

2010   |    Gary Gereffi and Karina Fernandez-Stark

Global Value Chains in a Postcrisis World: A Development Perspective. Washington, DC: The World Bank. Pp. 335-372 in Olivier Cattaneo, Gary Gereffi and Cornelia Staritz (eds.)

The Marketing and Distribution of Fast Food

2010   |    Michelle Christian and Gary Gereffi

Pediatric Obesity: Etiology, Pathogenesis, and Treatment Pp. 439- 450 in Michael Freemark (ed.) New York: Humana Press.  View Publication

A Reverse Brain Drain

2010   |    Vivek Wadhwa

Issues in Science and Technology (National Academy of Sciences), 25, 3 (Spring): 45-52.  Read More

Trade, Transnational Corporations and Food Consumption: A Global Value Chain Approach

2010   |    Gary Gereffi, Michelle Christian

This paper applies the GVC framework to examine the linkages between trade, foreign direct investment and food consumption in several illustrative country cases (China, Mexico and Trinidad and Tobago), and highlights the role of TNCs as drivers of food co

Trade, Food, Diet and Health: Perspectives and Policy Options   View Paper

U.S.-Based Food and Agricultural Value Chains and Their Relevance to Healthy Diets

2009   |    Gary Gereffi, Joonkoo Lee, Michelle Christian

This article examines the structure and health implications of two industries, chicken and tomatoes, that play prominent roles in US food and agricultural competitiveness. Both industries have become more concentrated over time, with powerful “lead firms”

Journal of Hunger & Environmental Nutrition Gereffi, Gary, Lee, Joonkoo and Christian, Michelle(2009) 'US-Based Food and Agricultural Value Chains and Their Relevance to Healthy Diets', Journal of Hunger & Environmental Nutrition, 4: 3, 357 — 374  View Article

Powder Coatings in China

2009   |    Lukas Brun and Ruggero Golini

European Coatings Journal   Read More

Value Chain Governance

2009   |    Stacey Frederick, Gary Gereffi

This briefing paper explains the importance of identifying governance structures when conducting value chain analysis. It describes the factors, types, and determinants of governance, and gives some recommendations for practitioners to intervene to effect

USAID Briefing Paper   View Briefing Paper

The American Brain Drain and Asia

2009   |    Vivek Wadhwa, Gary Gereffi, Alex Salkever

Asia-Pacific Journal   View Article

Governance & Upgrading

2009   |    Stacey Frederick

The USAID Microlinks Value Chain wiki is a tool for those interested in learning more about the value chain research approach. Frederick wrote the content for the overview and in-depth upgrading and governance sections.

USAID Value Chain Development Wiki   View Upgrading Section  View Governance Section

US-based Food and Agricultural Value Chains and Their Relevance to Healthy Diets

2009   |    Gary Gereffi, Joonkoo Lee and Michelle Christian

Special issue on “Food Systems and Public Health: Linkages to Achieve Healthier Diets and Healthier Communities.

Journal of Hunger and Environmental Nutrition 4, 3: 357-374  Read More

Review and Analysis of Protectionist Actions in the Textile and Apparel Industries

2009   |    Stacey Frederick, Gary Gereffi

The Fateful Allure of Protectionism: Taking Stock for the G8 Pp. 65-68 in Simon J. Evenett, Bernard M. Hoekman, and Olivier Cattaneo (eds.) Washington, DC and London: The World Bank and the Centre for Economic Policy Research.

Protectionism in Textiles and Apparel

2009   |    Stacey Frederick and Gary Gereffi

Effective Crisis Response and Openness: Implications for the Trading System. Pp. 321-344 in Simon J. Evenett, Bernard M. Hoekman and Olivier Cattaneo (eds.) Washington, DC and London: The World Bank and the Centre for Economic Policy Research.

America's Loss is the World's Gain: America's New Immigrant Entrepreneurs: Part IV

2009   |    Vivek Wadhwa, AnnaLee Saxenian, Richard Freeman, Gary Gereffi

Since even before the 2008 financial and economic crisis, some observers have noted that a substantial number of highly skilled immigrants have started returning to their home countries, including persons from low-income countries like India and China who

America's New Immigrant Entrepreneurs Series Wadhwa, Vivek, Saxenian, AnnaLee, Freeman, Richard B. and Gereffi, Gary, America's Loss is the World's Gain: America's New Immigrant Entrepreneurs, Part 4 (March 2, 2009). Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1348616  View Article

Measuring Success in the Global Economy: International Trade, Industrial Upgrading and Business Function Outsourcing in Global Value Chains

2009   |    Timothy Sturgeon, Gary Gereffi

Transnational Corporations 18, 2 (August): 1-35.  Read More

The Challenge of Global Value Chains: Why Integrative Trade Requires New Thinking and New Data

2008   |    Timothy Sturgeon, Gary Gereffi

Report prepared for Industry Canada. This paper was prepared in response to a request from Industry Canada to develop recommendations for collecting data on the position of Canadian firms in global value chains (GVCs).

Industry Canada   View Paper

How the Disciple Became the Guru

2008   |    Vivek Wadhwa, Una Kim de Vitton, Gary Gereffi

This paper is based on detailed interviews with the CEOs, HR executives, R&D managers, and employees of 24 leading companies in rapidly growing sectors in India. The authors present an overview of best practices in recruiting, training, managerial develop

SSRN Wadhwa, Vivek, Kim de Vitton, Una and Gereffi, Gary, How the Disciple Became the Guru (July 23, 2008). Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1170049  View Article

Skilled Immigration and Economic Growth

2008   |    Vivek Wadhwa, AnnaLee Saxenian, Ben Rissing, Gary Gereffi

This paper explores the educational attainment and career trajectories of immigrant entrepreneurs in the U.S. The research confirms that advanced education in STEM fields (science, technology, engineering and mathematics) is correlated with high rates of

Applied Research in Economic Development Applied Research in Economic Development, Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 6-14, 2008   Paper

Value Chain Governance (Spanish Version): La Gobernabilad de la Cadena de Valor

2008   |    Stacey Frederick, Gary Gereffi

This briefing paper explains the importance of identifying governance structures when conducting value chain analysis. It describes the factors, types, and determinants of governance, and gives some recommendations for practitioners to intervene to effect

USAID Briefing Paper   View Briefing Paper

Getting the Numbers Right: International Engineering Education in the United States, China, and India

2008   |    Gary Gereffi, Vivek Wadhwa, Ben Rissing, Ryan Ong

This article challenges the commonly cited statistics for engineering graduates in the United States, China, and India. The authors argue that the key issue in engineering education should be the quality of graduates, not just the quantity, since quantity

Journal of Engineering Education January 2008 Issue, p. 13-25  View Article

North Carolina in the Global Economy: A Value Chain Perspective on the State's Leading Industries

2007   |    Gary Gereffi, Mike Hensen, Ryan Denniston

This article highlights the features of the North Carolina in the Global Economy (NCGE) website.

Journal of Textile and Apparel, Technology and Management JTATM, Volume 5, Issue 4  View Article

Intellectual Property, the Immigration Backlog and a Reverse Brain-Drain: Part III

2007   |    Vivek Wadhwa, Guillermina Jasso, Ben Rissing, Gary Gereffi, Richard Freeman

This Kauffman Foundation-supported study is Part III of the "America's New Immigrant Entrepreneurs" series, which focuses on immigrants' contributions to the competitiveness of the U.S. economy.

America's New Immigrant Entrepreneurs Series   View Paper

Where the Engineers Are

2007   |    Vivek Wadhwa, Gary Gereffi, Ben Rissing, Ryan Ong

To guide education policy and maintain its innovation leadership, the United States must acquire an accurate understanding of the quantity and quality of engineering graduates in India and China.

National Academy of Science Journal, Issues in Science & Technology   View Article

America's New Immigrant Entrepreneurs: Part I

2007   |    Vivek Wadhwa, AnnaLee Saxenian, Ben Rissing, Gary Gereffi

This paper assesses the contribution of skilled immigrants in the creation of engineering and technology businesses and intellectual property in the United States. The research shows that immigrants have become a significant driving force in the creation

Duke Science, Technology & Innovation Working Paper Series Duke Science, Technology & Innovation Paper No. 23   View Article

The New Offshoring of Jobs and Global Development (Book)

2005   |    Gary Gereffi

This volume contains the text of the ILO Social Policy Lectures (Jamaica, December 2005) revised and updated by Gary Gereffi. It is a joint publication of the University of the West Indies and the International Institute for Labour Studies.

International Institute for Labour Studies   View Book

Value Chain for the U.S. Cotton Industry

2005   |    Andrew Hutson, Monica Biravadolu, Gary Gereffi

In this report, the authors take a comprehensive view of the cotton industry detailing the key actors, market forces and vulnerabilities within each of the main segments from cotton production to the manufacture of textiles and cottonseed products.

Report Prepared for Oxfam America   View PDF