Harnessing Foreign Direct Investment for Local Development? Spillovers in Apparel Global Value Chains in Sub-Saharan Africa

2016   |    Cornelia Staritz, Stacey Frederick

At the beginning of the 2000s, the introduction of the African Growth and Opportunity Act contributed to a boom in foreign direct investment (FDI) in the Sub-Saharan African (SSA) apparel industry. The possibility of exploiting the spillover potential of this FDI raised significant hopes of developing a locally-embedded SSA apparel export industry. The paper explores the level and nature of FDI spillovers and the factors supporting and constraining them focusing on three of the leading SSA apparel exporter countries - Kenya, Lesotho, and Swaziland. We find that despite significant investments to attract FDI, there are very limited spillovers to local firms and industries. In addition to domestic absorption capacity, the potential for and the nature of FDI spillovers is importantly determined by the strategy of foreign investors and the governance of global value chains (GVCs).

OFSE Working Paper 59   View Abstract  View PDF

Role of Private Firms in the Egyptian Maize Value Chain

2015   |    Marie Veyrier, Ghada Ahmed, Danny Hamrick

Maize impacts both caloric intake and diet quality of the Egyptian population. Such importance is mostly driven by a shift in diets. The private sector, which relies on imports to cater to its maize needs, is the lead actor of the maize value chain. This brief first analyzes the importance of maize to Egypt’s food security. In a global context where maize prices are high and volatile, this brief describes the strategies adopted by Egyptian lead firms to secure supply and meet growing demand. Such strategies range from diversification to vertical integration and upgrading.

Duke MINERVA Research Brief No. 5, May  View PDF

Comparing Egypt and Saudi Arabia’s Wheat GVC

2014   |    Danny Hamrick, Ghada Ahmed, Andrew Guinn, Ajmal Abdulsamad, Annelies Goger, Jack Daly, Jonathan Morgan, Gary Gereffi

Wheat is one of the most important commodities in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) and the region is the largest importer of wheat and other grains. While there are many challenges in terms of securing stable wheat supplies, like storage capacity and water reserves, sub-regional differences exist in the organization of the wheat industry and subsequent challenges. This brief sheds light on these differences through a comparison of Egyptian and Saudi Arabian wheat value chains. We conclude that while many issues, such as availability of currency reserves, span the region, other issues are country or sub-region specific.

Duke MINERVA Research Brief No. 2, April  View Research Brief

Making Foreign Direct Investment Work for Sub-Saharan Africa: Chapter 7: Sector Case Study: Apparel

2014   |    Cornelia Staritz, Stacey Frederick

Foreign direct investment (FDI) is becoming an increasingly significant catalyst for output and trade in developing countries, in part due to a major expansion in the scope of global value chains (GVCs). FDI delivers a number of important contributions to economic development in terms of investment, employment, and foreign exchange.

Making Foreign Direct Investment Work for Sub-Saharan Africa: Local Spillovers and Competitiveness in Global Value Chains Pp. 209-244 in T. Farole and D. Winkler (eds.), Washington, DC: The World Bank.  View Publisher's Website   View Book PDF

Economic and Social Upgrading and Workforce Development in the Apparel Global Value Chain

2013   |    Gary Gereffi

Korea Labor Institute, International Labor Brief 11, 4 (April): 18-28  View Article

Global Value Chains, Economic Upgrading and Gender: Case Studies of the Horticulture, Tourism, and Call Center Industries

2013   |    Penny Bamber, Karina Fernandez-Stark, Ghada Ahmed, Michelle Christian

This book provides an analysis of the horticulture, tourism, and call center global value chains (GVCs) based on a survey of the literature and case studies carried out in Honduras (horticulture), Kenya (tourism), and Egypt (call centers). The studies show that GVCs and their upgrading dynamics have important gender dimensions, and that integration and upgrading are influenced by, and have an impact on, gender relations.

World Bank Book Cornelia Staritz and José Guilherme Reis (eds.)  View Book   View Blog Post

Beyond the Annual Budget: Global Experience with Medium-Term Expenditure Frameworks (Case Studies)

2013   |    Ghada Ahmed

Ghada Ahmed was a contributor to the case studies on Ghana and South Africa in the appendices of the book.

  Read More  View PDF

Private Employment Agencies in Morocco

2011   |    Ghada Ahmed

This working paper and the Global Dialogue Forum are part of the ILO’s Sectoral Activities Programme.

ILO Sectoral Activities Programme: Working Paper No. 283  View Report

Employment and Human Resource Services in Egypt

2010   |    Ghada Ahmed

This study was undertaken and written by Ghada Ahmed, a CGGC Research Associate, as her Master’s Project toward completion of her Master’s in International Development Policy from Duke’s Sanford School of Public Policy in 2010.

Duke University Master\'s Project, Duke Center for International Development (DCID) Spring  View PDF